Activation loop phosphorylation plays critical regulatory roles for many kinases. Unlike other protein kinase Cs (PKC), PKC-delta does not require phosphorylation of its activation loop (Thr-507) for in vitro activity. We investigated the structural basis for this unusual capacity and its relevance to PKC-delta function in intact cells. Mutational analysis demonstrated that activity without Thr-507 phosphorylation depends on 20 residues N-terminal to the kinase domain and a pair of phenylalanines (Phe-500/Phe-527) unique to PKC-delta in/near the activation loop. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these elements stabilize the activation loop by forming a hydrophobic chain of interactions from the C-lobe to activation loop to N-terminal (helical) extension. In cells PKC-delta mediates both apoptosis and transcription regulation. We found that the T507A mutant of the PKC-delta kinase domain resembled the corresponding wild type in mediating apoptosis in transfected HEK293T cells. But the T507A mutant was completely defective in AP-1 and NF-kappaB reporter assays. A novel assay in which the kinase domain of PKC-delta and its substrate (a fusion protein of PKC substrate peptide with green fluorescent protein) were co-targeted to lipid rafts revealed a major substrate-selective defect of the T507A mutant in phosphorylating the substrate in cells. In vitro analysis showed strong product inhibition on the T507A mutant with particular substrates whose characteristics suggest it contributes to the substrate selective defect of the PKC-delta T507A mutant in cells. Thus, activation loop phosphorylation of PKC-delta may regulate its function in cells in a novel way.
"etz , 1999 ; Leonard et al . , 2011 ) . Another possible reconciliation is that while much of the literature supports an activation model where phosphorylation is necessary for PKC activity , there are exceptions ; as indicated earlier for instance , the active loop phosphorylation at Thr505 - PKCδ is not required for activity ( Steinberg , 2004 ; Liu et al . , 2006 ) . As an nPKC , PKCδ , and others that behave similarly , may therefore be active in presence of elevated DAG regardless of phosphorylation state ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives whole-body freezing and thawing each win-ter. The extensive adaptations required at the biochemical level are facilitated by alterations to signaling pathways, including the insulin/Akt and AMPK pathways. Past studies investigating changing tissue-specific patterns of the second messenger IP 3 in adapted frogs have suggested important roles for protein kinase C (PKC) in response to stress. In addition to their dependence on second messengers, phos-phorylation of three PKC sites by upstream kinases (most notably PDK1) is needed for full PKC activation, according to widely-accepted models. The present study uses phospho-specific immunoblotting to investigate phosphorylation states of PKC—as they relate to distinct tissues, PKC isozymes, and phosphorylation sites— in control and frozen frogs. In contrast to past studies where second messengers of PKC increased during the freezing process, phosphorylation of PKC tended to generally decline in most tissues of frozen frogs. All PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting decreased in phosphorylation levels in hind leg skeletal muscle and hearts of frozen frogs. Most PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected in livers and kidneys also declined; the only exceptions were the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641) antibody, which remained unchanged from con-trol to frozen frogs. Changes in brains of frozen frogs were unique; no decreases were observed in the phosphorylation levels of any of the PKC isozymes and/or specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting. Rather, increases were observed for the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641), phospho-PKCδ (Thr505), and phospho-PKCθ (Thr538) antibodies; all other isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected in brain remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. The results of this study indicate a potential important role for PKC in cerebral protection during wood frog freezing. Our findings also call for a reassessment of the previously-inferred importance of PKC in other tissues, particularly in liver; a more thorough investigation is required to determine whether PKC activity in this physiological situation is indeed dependent on phosphorylation, or whether it deviates from the generally-accepted model and can be "overridden" by exceedingly high levels of second messengers, as has been demonstrated with certain PKC isozymes (e.g., PKCδ). How to cite this article Dieni and Storey (2014), Protein kinase C in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: reassessing the tissue-specific regulation of PKC isozymes during freezing. PeerJ 2:e558; DOI 10.7717/peerj.558
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) is considered to modulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Pancreatic beta cells express multiple isoforms of PKCs; however, the role of each isoform in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion remains controversial. In this study we investigated the role of PKCdelta, a major isoform expressed in pancreatic beta cells on beta cell function. Here, we showed that PKCdelta null mice manifested glucose intolerance with impaired insulin secretion. Insulin tolerance test showed no decrease in insulin sensitivity in PKCdelta null mice. Studies using islets isolated from these mice demonstrated decreased glucose- and KCl-stimulated insulin secretion. Perifusion studies indicated that mainly the second phase of insulin secretion was decreased. On the other hand, glucose-induced influx of Ca2+ into beta cells was not altered. Immunohistochemistry using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopic analysis showed an increased number of insulin granules close to the plasma membrane in beta cells of PKCdelta null mice. Although PKC is thought to phosphorylate Munc18-1 and facilitate soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors complex formation, the phosphorylation of Munc18-1 by glucose stimulation was decreased in islets of PKCdelta null mice. We conclude that PKCdelta plays a non-redundant role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The impaired insulin secretion in PKCdelta null mice is associated with reduced phosphorylation of Munc18-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension is known to exacerbate diabetic complications, such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Apoptosis of retinal vascular pericytes has been well established as the earliest conceivable change in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we investigated the contribution of cyclic stretch, which mimics a hypertensive state to pericyte apoptosis. A 48-hour cyclic stretch induced DNA fragmentation in porcine retinal pericytes and increased the number of TUNEL+ cells at a pathophysiologically relevant extension level (10%/60 cycles per minute). Stretch also increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and increased c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase phosphorylation in a time- and magnitude-dependent manner, which were reduced by the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium or dominant-negative protein kinase C-delta. Stretch activated protein kinase C-delta and increased its association with p47phox. Stretch induced cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 and increased caspase-3 activity. Protein kinase C-delta or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase inhibition normalized stretch-induced caspase-3 activity and prevented stretch-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that cyclic stretch induces apoptosis in porcine retinal pericytes by activation of the reactive oxygen species-c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-caspase cascades, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism to explain the exacerbation of early diabetic retinopathy by concomitant hypertension.
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