Risperidone in the treatment of psychosis of Alzheimer disease: Results from a prospective clinical trial
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of low-dose risperidone for treating psychosis of Alzheimer disease (AD).
The authors conducted a randomized, eight-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving nursing home residents diagnosed with AD and psychosis. Four hundred seventy-three patients were randomly assigned to placebo (N = 238) or 1.0 to 1.5 mg risperidone per day (N = 235). Coprimary efficacy end points were: changes in scores on the Behavioral pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) Psychosis subscale and Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C). Protocol-specified subgroup analyses were performed by demographics and dementia severity.
Efficacy analysis included 416 patients. Both groups improved significantly on the BEHAVE-AD Psychosis subscale and CGI-C with no significant difference between groups. In the subgroups analyses, a statistically significant treatment by Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) interaction on the CGI-C (F([2,381]) = 3.90, p = 0.021) was observed with patients with more severe dementia (MMSE <10) showing significant differences at end point favoring risperidone treatment (chi(2) () = 5.11, p = 0.024). Mean risperidone dose was 1.03 +/- 0.24 mg per day. All-cause discontinuation rates were 25% for both risperidone and placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 74% risperidone versus 64% placebo patients, with somnolence occurring significantly more frequently with risperidone (16.2% versus 4.6%). Nine (3.8%) risperidone- and six (2.5%) placebo patients died during or within 30 days after treatment.
This trial did not confirm earlier findings in this population.
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ABSTRACT: The benefits and harms of antipsychotic medication (APM) use in nursing home residents need to be examined because, although commonly used, APMs are considered an off-label use by the Food and Drug Administration for residents with dementia and behavioral problems. The objective of this study was to provide a realist literature review, summarizing original research studies on the clinical effects of conventional and atypical APM use in nursing home residents. Searches of multiple databases identified 424 potentially relevant research articles, of which 25 met the inclusion criteria. Antipsychotic medication use in nursing home residents was found to have variable efficacy when used off-label with an increased risk of many adverse events, including mortality, hip fractures, thrombotic events, cardiovascular events and hospitalizations. Findings suggested certain APM dosing regimens (e.g. fixed-dose) and shorter duration of use might have fewer adverse events. Non-pharmacological interventions should still be considered the first-line treatment option for nursing home residents with dementia related behavioral disturbances, as more studies are needed to establish safer criteria for APM use in nursing homes residents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Health Policy 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.healthpol.2015.02.014 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The application of atypical antipsychotics (SGAs) for treatment of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms of dementia is controversial since their efficacy might be offset by their adverse events (AEs). Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SGAs for treatment of psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia. Methods: Two researchers searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials independently for double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials (DB-PC-RCTs) as of June 2013, written in English. Efficacy was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C), and (or) Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S). Safety and tolerability were measured by frequencies of drop-outs, adverse events (AEs), and death. In total, 19 treatment comparisons drawn from 16 DB-PC-RCTs were included, and 3,343 patients randomized to the antipsychotic group and 1,707 to the placebo group were assessed. Results: This meta-analysis demonstrated a significant efficacy of atypical antipsychotics on BPRS (MD = -1.58, 95% CI = -2.52 - -0.65), CMAI (-1.84, -3.01 - -0.61), NPI (-2.81, -4.35 - -1.28), CGI-C (-0.32, -0.44 - -0.20), and CGI-S (-0.19, -0.30 - -0.09), compared to placebo (p < 0.01 for all). Patients receiving atypical antipsychotics showed no difference in risk for discontinuation (p > 0.05), significantly higher risks (p < 0.05 for all) for somnolence (OR = 2.95), extrapyramidal symptoms (1.74), cerebrovascular AEs (2.50), urinary tract infection (1.35), edema (1.80), gait abnormality (3.35), and death (1.52), and a lower risk for agitation (OR = 0.80, p = 0.03). Conclusions: The higher risks for AEs and mortality may offset the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of dementia. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability thus should be carefully considered against clinical need.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 07/2014; 42(3). DOI:10.3233/JAD-140579 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Psychotic symptoms emerging in the context of neurodegeneration as a consequence of Alzheimer's disease was recognized and documented by Alois Alzheimer himself in his description of the first reported case of the disease. Over a quarter of a century ago, in the context of attempting to develop prognostic markers of disease progression, psychosis was identified as an independent predictor of a more-rapid cognitive decline. This finding has been subsequently well replicated, rendering psychotic symptoms an important area of exploration in clinical history taking - above and beyond treatment necessity - as their presence has prognostic significance. Further, there is now a rapidly accreting body of research that suggests that psychosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD+P) is a heritable disease subtype that enjoys neuropathological specificity and localization. There is now hope that the elucidation of the neurobiology of the syndrome will pave the way to translational research eventuating in new treatments. To date, however, the primary treatments employed in alleviating the suffering caused by AD+P are the atypical antipsychotics. These agents are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia, but they have only marginal efficacy in treating AD+P and are associated with troubling levels of morbidity and mortality. For clinical approaches to AD+P to be optimized, this syndrome must be disentangled from other primary psychotic disorders, and recent scientific advances must be translated into disease-specific therapeutic interventions. Here we provide a review of atypical antipsychotic efficacy in AD+P, followed by an overview of critical neurobiological observations that point towards a frontal, tau-mediated model of disease, and we suggest a new preclinical animal model for future translational research.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:2253-2262. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S60837 · 2.15 Impact Factor