Acidic polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits melanoma cell metastasis by blocking cell adhesion and invasion
ABSTRACT The acidic polysaccharide (PL) from Phellinus linteus is an immunostimulator that has therapeutic activity against cancers. Here, we show that PL markedly inhibits melanoma cell metastasis in mice, and report that PL directly inhibits cancer cell adhesion to and invasion through the extracellular matrix, but that it has no direct effect on cancer cell growth. In addition, we found that PL increased macrophage NO production. These results suggest that PL has two antimetastatic functions, i.e., it acts as an immunopotentiator and as a direct inhibitor of cancer cell adhesion.
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- "Themolecularweightandatriple-helicalconformationare knowntobeimportantfactorsfortheimmune-stimulating activityoflentinan(BohnandBeMiller1995).Triple-helical lentinanexhibitsthestrongestanti-canceractivityinmouse modelexperiments,withaninhibitionratioof49.5%,whichis closetothatofareferenceanti-cancerdrug.Suchbioactivity rapidlydecreasedwhenthepolysaccharidechangedtoa single-flexiblechain,thusshowingthecorrelationbetween anti-canceractivityandthetriple-helixstructureoflentinan (Zhangetal.2005;Surenjavetal.2006). Theeffectiveanti-cancerpropertiesoflentinanwerefirst reportedbyChiharaetal.(1969,1970),usingsarcoma180 "
ABSTRACT: Fungal Diversity, 55 (1), 1-35 (2012). Medicinal mushrooms have been valued as natural sources of bioactive compounds since times immemorial and have been recognized as potential immunomodulating and anti-cancer agents. Their consumption has consistently been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Cancer is a generic term for several types of diseases that can be chronic and are responsible for a large number of deaths worldwide. Although there has been considerable progress in modern cancer therapy research, difficulties in understanding the molecular behavior of various types of cancers and the numerous side effects experienced by patients from treatments means that this whole subject area is still problematic. Thus, biological immunotherapy using natural bioactive compounds as supportive treatments in conventional cancer therapies has become in vogue. Bioactive metabolites isolated from medicinal mushrooms have shown potential successes in cancer treatment as biological immunotherapeutic agents that stimulate the immune system against cancer cells. They also act as an effective source of anti-cancer agents, capable of interfering with cellular signal transduction pathways linked to cancer development and progression. In this review we compile available data on the characteristics of medicinal mushrooms that appear to be particularly effective as biological immunotherapeutic agents. Major consideration is given to biological constituents and the putative mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds act on the human body. Consideration is also given to the benefits that have been claimed for the use of mushrooms in treating cancer and the future prospects of using medicinal mushrooms as potent supportive candidate bioagents for treatment of cancers is discussed.Fungal diversity 07/2012; 55(1):1-35. DOI:10.1007/s13225-012-0151-3 · 6.94 Impact Factor
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- "The key enzymes that have been shown to be closely associated with invasive and metastatic potential are MMPs and uPA [38,39]. Several studies have shown that PL inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis by activating host immunity [40-42]. Recently, PL was shown to suppress invasiveness through the inhibition of uPA secretion in mouse melanoma cells and breast cancer cells [7,11]. "
ABSTRACT: Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL. The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP) activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model. PL (125-1000 μg/mL) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of β-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL inhibited in vitro invasion and motility as well as the activity of MMP-9. In addition, PL treatment inhibited HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. Tumor growth of SW480 cells implanted into nude mice was significantly decreased as a consequence of PL treatment, and tumor tissues from treated animals showed an increase in the apoptotic index and a decrease in β-catenin expression. Moreover, the proliferation index and microvessel density were significantly decreased. These data suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in certain colon cancer cells.BMC Cancer 07/2011; 11:307. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-11-307 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A chemically defined medium for mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by submerged culture of Phellinus igniarius was investigated. The mainly defined medium compositions were optimized by using orthogonal matrix method. The optimal defined medium (per liter) was 40.0g glucose, 4.0g. glutamic acid, 4.0g (NH4)2SO4, and initial pH 6.0. Under the optimal medium, the maximal mycelial biomass and EPS production were 12.33±0.89 and 1.21±0.08gl−1 at 192h in shake flask, while the maximal mycelial biomass and EPS production reached 13.86±0.52 and 1.92±0.07gl−1 at 168h in 3l fermenter, respectively. The molecular weights (gmol−1) of four fractions isolated from EPS by gel permeation were about 6.4×106, 3.3×105, 2.7×105 and 2.9×103. This study should be widely applied to other secondary metabolites production from higher fungus in a chemically defined medium and quantitative regulation of the metabolic flux in polysaccharide biosynthesis.World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2009; 25(12):2187-2193. DOI:10.1007/s11274-009-0124-1 · 1.35 Impact Factor