Clinical and laboratory safety of one year's use of a combination calcium + vitamin D tablet in ambulatory elderly women with vitamin D insufficiency: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
ABSTRACT This article presents the results of an evaluation of the clinical and laboratory safety of a 1-year course of treatment with a combination calcium and vitamin D tablet in ambulatory women aged >65 years with vitamin D insufficiency.
In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in France, women with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level < or =12 ng/mL were randomized to receive either a combination tablet containing calcium carbonate 500 mg and vitamin D3 400 IU taken twice daily or a matching placebo tablet for 1 year. A complete clinical examination was performed at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment; blood and urine samples were collected for laboratory analyses at the same time points. Safety was monitored based on adverse events recorded during the treatment period and on the results of laboratory tests, including measurement of creatinine and uric acid levels.
The study included 192 women (mean [SD] age, 74.6 [6.9] years; mean weight, 64.0 [12.5] kg), 95 in the calcium + vitamin D group and 97 in the placebo group. Fifty women (21/95 [22.1%] calcium + vitamin D, 29/96 [30.2%] placebo) were prematurely withdrawn from the study for various reasons, with no difference in withdrawals between groups. Treatment-related adverse events were reported in 21 (22.1%) and 23 (24.0%) women in the respective treatment groups. These events consisted mainly of metabolic disorders (9 [9.5%] and 10 [10.4%], respectively), particularly hypercalcemia (6 [6.3%] and 8 [8.3%]) and gastrointestinal disorders (9 [9.5%] and 8 [8.3%]). No major complications directly related to calcium and vitamin D supplementation occurred during the course of treatment. Although renal function was not altered, the group who received calcium + vitamin D had significantly elevated concentrations of serum uric acid compared with those who received placebo (52.3% vs 37.2%; P = 0.046) but not urinary uric acid.
In these ambulatory elderly women with vitamin D deficiency, supplementation with calcium + vitamin D appeared to be well tolerated over 1 year of treatment. No significant effects on creatinine clearance were observed. However, the proportion of women with elevated serum uric acid concentrations was significantly greater in those who received calcium + vitamin D compared with those who received placebo.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with many disorders, leading to calls for widespread supplementation. Some investigators suggest that more clinical trials to test the effect of vitamin D on disorders are needed. We did a trial sequential meta-analysis of existing randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplements, with or without calcium, to investigate the possible effect of future trials on current knowledge. We estimated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, stroke or cerebrovascular disease, cancer, total fracture, hip fracture, and mortality in trial sequential analyses using a risk reduction threshold of 5% for mortality and 15% for other endpoints. The effect estimate for vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium for myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease (nine trials, 48 647 patients), stroke or cerebrovascular disease (eight trials 46 431 patients), cancer (seven trials, 48 167 patients), and total fracture (22 trials, 76 497 patients) lay within the futility boundary, indicating that vitamin D supplementation does not alter the relative risk of any of these endpoints by 15% or more. Vitamin D supplementation alone did not reduce hip fracture by 15% or more (12 trials, 27 834 patients). Vitamin D co-administered with calcium reduced hip fracture in institutionalised individuals (two trials, 3853 patients) but did not alter the relative risk of hip fracture by 15% or more in community-dwelling individuals (seven trials, 46 237 patients). There is uncertainty as to whether vitamin D with or without calcium reduces the risk of death (38 trials, 81 173). Our findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium does not reduce skeletal or non-skeletal outcomes in unselected community-dwelling individuals by more than 15%. Future trials with similar designs are unlikely to alter these conclusions. Health Research Council of New Zealand.The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 04/2014; 2(4):307-20.
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ABSTRACT: Some recent reports suggest that calcium supplement use may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. In a prospective cohort study of 74,245 women in the Nurses' Health Study with 24 years of follow-up, we found no independent associations between supplemental calcium intake and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Some recent reports suggest that calcium supplements may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective was to examine the independent associations between calcium supplement use and risk of CVD. We conducted a prospective cohort study of supplemental calcium use and incident CVD in 74,245 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2008) free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Calcium supplement intake was assessed every 4 years. Outcomes were incident CHD (nonfatal or fatal MI) and stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), confirmed by medical record review. During 24 years of follow-up, 4,565 cardiovascular events occurred (2,709 CHD and 1,856 strokes). At baseline, women who took calcium supplements had higher levels of physical activity, smoked less, and had lower trans fat intake compared with those who did not take calcium supplements. After multivariable adjustment for age, body mass index, dietary calcium, vitamin D intake, and other CVD risk factors, the relative risk of CVD for women taking >1,000 mg/day of calcium supplements compared with none was 0.82 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.74 to 0.92; p for trend <0.001). For women taking >1,000 mg/day of calcium supplements compared with none, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk for CHD was 0.71 (0.61 to 0.83; p for trend < 0.001) and for stroke was 1.03 (0.87 to 1.21; p for trend = 0.61). The relative risks were similar in analyses limited to non-smokers, women without hypertension, and women who had regular physical exams. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that calcium supplement intake increases CVD risk in women.Osteoporosis International 05/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the growing body of evidence on the potential effects of calcium and vitamin D as monotherapies on different cardiovascular (CV) parameters, the combined supplementation with calcium and vitamin D (CaD), which is most frequently encountered in clinical practice, has not received the attention it deserves. A literature search was conducted via EMBASE and Medline and identified 14 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 meta-analyses reporting on effects of combined supplementation with CaD on CV events, CV death, blood pressure, lipids, glucose metabolism and weight. Overall, the existing evidence does not support beneficial properties of supplementation with CaD on the CV system, nor does it suggest that a re-appraisal of the use of CaD is necessary due to adverse effects, although increased risk of CV events has been reported by some authors. The guidelines for the use of CaD supplementation need not change until well-conducted RCTs that have CV effects as primary outcomes and adjust for major confounders indicate otherwise.Atherosclerosis 02/2015; 238(2). · 3.71 Impact Factor