Changes in properties of substantia gelatinosa neurons after surgical incision in the rat: in vivo patch-clamp analysis.
ABSTRACT Noxious information through A delta and C afferent fibers is transmitted to substantia gelatinosa, a process that plays an important role in plastic changes of nociceptive processing in pathophysiological conditions. In this study, changes in properties of substantia gelatinosa neurons and their sensitivity to systemic administration of lidocaine after surgical incision were investigated using the in vivo patch-clamp technique.
Under urethane anesthesia, in the current clamp mode, spontaneous activities and responses of substantia gelatinosa neurons to nonnoxious air-puff stimuli and noxious pinch stimuli were recorded before and after 1-cm-long incisions had been made in hairy skin of the hindquarters of rats. Systemic administration of lidocaine (2 mg/kg) was applied at 30 min after the incision.
Stable recordings for 30 min or more after the incision were obtained from 18 substantia gelatinosa neurons that were classified as multireceptive (n = 8), nociceptive (n = 5), and subthreshold (n = 5) neurons. Action potential firing disappeared immediately after completion of the wound closure in most multireceptive and nociceptive neurons, and sustained spontaneous action potential firing was observed in 23% of these substantia gelatinosa neurons. Responsiveness of these substantia gelatinosa neurons, but not that of subthreshold neurons, increased after the incision. Systemic administration of lidocaine suppressed spontaneous firings of action potentials of the substantia gelatinosa neurons and reversed the increased responsiveness of the neurons.
The results suggest that (1) changes in properties of substantia gelatinosa neurons after incision vary depending on the classification of substantia gelatinosa neurons and (2) systemic administration of lidocaine can reverse increased responsiveness of substantia gelatinosa neurons after incision injury.
Article: Hindpaw incision in early life increases the hyperalgesic response to repeat surgical injury: critical period and dependence on initial afferent activity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pain in early life can enhance the response to subsequent injury, but effects are influenced by both the nature and timing of neonatal injury. Using plantar hindpaw incision, we investigated how postnatal age influences the response to repeat surgical injury two weeks later. The degree and time course of behavioural changes in mechanical withdrawal threshold were measured, and injury-related hyperalgesia was further quantified by flexion reflex electromyographic responses to suprathreshold mechanical stimuli 24 h following incision. Plantar hindpaw incision produces acute mechanical hyperalgesia in neonatal and adult rats, but incision in neonatal pups has an additional effect on the response to subsequent injury. With initial incision at postnatal day (P) 3 or 6, the degree of hyperalgesia following repeat incision 2 weeks later was greater than in animals having a single incision at the same age. At older ages (initial incision at P10, P21 or P40) responses did not differ in repeat and single incision groups. To test the role of primary afferent activity, levobupivacaine sciatic block was performed prior to P6 plantar incision, and controls received saline or subcutaneous levobupivacaine. Repeat peri-operative, but not a single pre-operative sciatic block, prevented the enhanced response to repeat incision two weeks later. Our results show that the first postnatal week represents a critical period when incision increases hyperalgesia following repeat surgery two weeks later, and effects are initiated by peripheral afferent activity. This has potential therapeutic implications for the type and duration of peri-operative analgesia used for neonatal surgery.Pain 09/2009; 147(1-3):99-106. · 5.78 Impact Factor