Distinct functions of human numb isoforms revealed by misexpression in the neural stem cell lineage in the Drosophila larval brain.
ABSTRACT Mammalian Numb (mNumb) has multiple functions and plays important roles in the regulation of neural development, including maintenance of neural progenitor cells and promotion of neuronal differentiation in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the molecular bases underlying the distinct functions of Numb have not yet been elucidated. mNumb, which has four splicing isoforms, can be divided into two types based on the presence or absence of an amino acid insert in the proline-rich region (PRR) in the C-terminus. It has been proposed that the distinct functions of mNumb may be attributable to these two different types of isoforms. In this study, we used the outer optic anlage (OOA) of the Drosophila larval brain as an assay system to analyze the functions of these two types of isoforms in the neural stem cells, since the proliferation pattern of neuroepithelial (NE) stem cells in the OOA closely resembles that of the vertebrate neural stem/progenitor cells. They divide to expand the progenitor cell pool during early neurogenesis and to produce neural precursors/neurons during late neurogenesis. Clonal analysis in the OOA allows one to discriminate between the NE stem cells, which divide symmetrically to expand the progenitor pool, and the postembryonic neuroblasts (pNBs), which divide asymmetrically to produce neural precursors (ganglion mother cells), each of which divides once to produce two neurons. We found that in the OOA, the human Numb isoform with a long PRR domain (hNumb-PRRL), which is mainly expressed during early neurogenesis in the mouse CNS, promotes proliferation of both NE cells and pNBs without affecting neuronal differentiation, while the other type of hNumb isoform with a short PRR domain (hNumb-PRRS), which is expressed throughout neurogenesis in the mouse embryonic CNS, inhibits proliferation of the stem cells and promotes neuronal differentiation. We also found that hNumb-PRRS, a functional homologue of Drosophila Numb, more strongly decreases the amount of nuclear Notch than hNumb-PRRL, and could antagonize Notch functions probably through endocytic degradation, suggesting that the two distinct types of hNumb isoforms could contribute to different phases of neurogenesis in the mouse embryonic CNS.
- SourceAvailable from: Nam-Hyuk Cho[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ca(2+) is a critical factor in the regulation of signal transduction and Ca(2+) homeostasis is altered in different human diseases. The level of Ca(2+) in cells is highly regulated through a diverse class of regulators. Among them is the transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6), which is a Ca(2+) selective channel that absorbs Ca(2+) in the small intestine. TRPV6 is overexpressed in some cancers and exhibits oncogenic potential, but its exact mechanism is still poorly understood. The Numb protein is a cell fate determinant that functions in endocytosis and as a tumor suppressor via the stabilization of p53. Numb protein consisted of four isoforms. Here, we showed a novel function of Numb1, which negatively regulates TRPV6 activity. The expression of Numb1 decreased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations in TRPV6-transfected HEK293 cells. When all the isoforms of Numb were depleted using siRNA in a TRPV6 stable cell line, the levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) increased. We observed an interaction between Numb1 and TRPV6 using co-immunoprecipitation. We confirmed this interaction using Fluorescence Resolution Energy Transfer (FRET). We identified the TRPV6 and Numb1 binding site using TRPV6 C-terminal truncation mutants and Numb1 deletion mutants. The binding site in TRPV6 was an aspartic acid at amino acid residue 716, and that binding site in Numb1 was arginine at amino acid residue 434. A Numb1 mutant, lacking TRPV6 binding activity, failed to inhibit TRPV6 activity. Every isoform of Numb knockdown, using an siRNA-based approach in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, not only showed enhanced TRPV6 expression but also both the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and cell proliferation were increased. The down-regulated expression of TRPV6 using siRNA increased Numb protein expression; however, the cytosolic influx of Ca(2+) and proliferation of the cell were decreased. To examine downstream signaling during Ca(2+) influx, we performed Western blotting analysis on TRPV6 upregulated cancer cells (MCF-7, PC-3). Taken together, these results demonstrated that Numb1 interacts with TRPV6 through charged residues and inhibits its activity via the regulation of protein expression. Moreover, we provided evidence for a Ca(2+)-regulated cancer cell signaling pathway and that the Ca(2+) channel is a target of cancer cells.Cell calcium 11/2012; 53(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ceca.2012.10.005 · 4.21 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A large number of neural and glial cell species differentiate from neuronal precursor cells during nervous system development. Two types of Drosophila optic lobe neurons, lamina and medulla neurons, are derived from the neuroepithelial (NE) cells of the outer optic anlagen. During larval development, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Ras signaling sweeps the NE field from the medial edge and drives medulla neuroblast (NB) formation. This signal drives the transient expression of a proneural gene, lethal of scute, and we refer to its signal array as the "proneural wave," as it is the marker of the EGFR/Ras signaling front. In this study, we show that the atypical cadherin Fat and the downstream Hippo pathways regulate the transduction of EGFR/Ras signaling along the NE field and, thus, ensure the progress of NB differentiation. Fat/Hippo pathway mutation also disrupts the pattern formation of the medulla structure, which is associated with the regulation of neurogenesis. A candidate for the Fat ligand, Dachsous is expressed in the posterior optic lobe, and its mutation was observed to cause a similar phenotype as fat mutation, although in a regionally restricted manner. We also show that Dachsous functions as the ligand in this pathway and genetically interacts with Fat in the optic lobe. These findings provide new insights into the function of the Fat/Hippo pathway, which regulates the ordered progression of neurogenesis in the complex nervous system.Development Growth and Regeneration 06/2011; 53(5):653-67. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-169X.2011.01279.x · 2.18 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The first step in the development of the Drosophila optic medullar primordia is the expansion of symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells (NEs); this step is then followed by the appearance of asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts (NBs). However, the mechanisms responsible for the change from NEs to NBs remain unclear. Here, we performed detailed analyses demonstrating that individual NEs are converted into NBs. We also showed that this transition occurs during an elongated G1 phase. During this G1 phase, the morphological features and gene expressions of each columnar NE changed dynamically. Once the NE-to-NB transition was completed, the former NE changed its cell-cycling behavior, commencing asymmetric division. We also found that Notch signaling pathway was activated just before the transition and was rapidly downregulated. Furthermore, the clonal loss of the Notch wild copy in the NE region near the medial edge caused the ectopic accumulation of Delta, leading to the precocious onset of transition. Taken together, these findings indicate that the activation of Notch signaling during a finite window coordinates the proper timing of the NE-to-NB transition.Developmental Biology 03/2011; 351(1):163-75. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.12.044 · 3.64 Impact Factor