Regulation of melanin synthesis by selenium-containing carbohydrates.
ABSTRACT This study reports depigmenting potency of selenium-containing carbohydrates, which would be based upon the finding of direct inhibition to mushroom tyrosinase. Two selenoglycosiede, SG-3 (bis(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-arabinopyranosyl) selenide) and SG-8 (4'-methylbenzoyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-D-selenomanopyranoside) among eleven selenium-containing compounds examined, were discovered to be effective depigmenting compounds on a mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory assay. SG-3 exhibited a competitive inhibition effect that was similar to kojic acid, well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. At 100 microM and 150 microM, SG-8 had an uncompetitive inhibitory effect that was higher than kojic acid. A study of a melan-a cell originated-tyrosinase inhibition assay showed that SG-8 had a lower inhibitory effect than kojic acid. SG-3 showed a similar inhibition effect to kojic acid on the melan-a cell-originated tyrosinase inhibitory assay. SG-8 showed dose-dependently cytotoxicity in a study of inhibition melanin synthesis by melan-a cells. Most melan-a cells did not survive after being treated with 20 microM of SG-8. At 10 microM, SG-3 inhibited melanin synthesis in the melan-a cells, and the effect was similar to phenylthiourea, which is a well-known inhibitor of melanin synthesis. Therefore, SG-3 is a new candidate for depigmenting reagents.
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ABSTRACT: Tyrosinase is a multifunctional, glycosylated, and copper-containing oxidase, which catalyzes the first two steps in mammalian melanogenesis and is responsible for enzymatic browning reactions in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing. Neither hyperpigmentation in human skin nor enzymatic browning in fruits are desirable. These phenomena have encouraged researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods and cosmetics. This article surveys tyrosinase inhibitors newly discovered from natural and synthetic sources. The inhibitory strength is compared with that of a standard inhibitor, kojic acid, and their inhibitory mechanisms are discussed.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 07/2009; 10(6):2440-75. · 2.60 Impact Factor