Surface sediment (0-5 cm) samples were collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) in July 2002 and analyzed for 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and heptachlor. The total PAHs and OCPs concentrations were 138-1100 and 0.18-3.57 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Compositional pattern analysis suggested that PAHs in the PRE were derived from both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources, whereas most PAHs in the northern SCS were pyrogenically originated. The concentrations of both PAHs and OCPs were higher in the PRE than in the northern SCS, and a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea was observed. In addition, perylene was a predominant component in all samples and clustered with PAH compounds with high log Kow values (from phenanthrene). These findings indicated that river outflows were the major source of contamination in the offshore sediments. A preliminary assessment suggested that atmospheric deposition contributed only a minor portion of PAHs or OCPs in the sediments of the northern SCS. The sediment (0-5 cm) mass inventories were 126 and 423 metric tons for PAHs and were 0.4 and 1.4 metric tons for OCPs in the PRE and the northern SCS, respectively. Clearly, contaminated sediments of the northern SCS may be a potential source of PAHs and OCPs to the global oceans.
"As one type of widespread pollutants, heavy metals were also observed in the global water bodies from other countries with serious pollution level, such as Hg was leaked to water system from the industrial wastewater occurred in Japan, causing Minamata disease (ME 2013); about 50 % of surface water in Poland was polluted by heavy metals released from mining and metallurgical industries , leading to water quality worse than the national water quality standard class III (Glasby et al. 2004). Organic pollutants include traditional persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Jaward et al. 2005), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Chen et al. 2006; Kanaki et al. 2007), organic chlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Chen et al. 2006), emerging POPs and other substituted benzene (Mahmoud et al. 2009; Wang et al. 2010a; Xu et al. 2013). Although these pollutants are at a trace level or less in water environment , they can accumulate in aquatic biota, migrate and transform, and further result in massive threat to ecological safety and human health because of their high toxicity and bioaccumulation, and poor degradability. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The water quality (COD as an index) in the Liao River basin (LRB) has been significantly improved in recent years, but toxic organic pollutants and heavy metals, however, are still present. Due to their bio-accumulative, persistent and poorly biodegradable properties as well as carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects, these pollutants have caused severe water environment pollution in the LRB and threatened to human health. This paper reviewed the pollution levels of PAHs, OCPs, PCBs, emerging persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in the LRB. The quantitative source apportionment methods and their application in LRB were summarized in detail. It was indicated that the organic pollutants and heavy metals in the LRB mainly originated from industrial sources, municipal wastewaters and agricultural nonpoint sources. The main problems and some suggestions for future study were proposed in order to acquire systematic data sets and comprehensive information on water pollution characteristics, which would provide valuable basis for government to establish an efficient strategy on prevention and control of highly toxic organic pollutants and trace heavy metals in the LRB.
"These results indicated the presence of new DDT inputs in the neighboring environment of the Natuna Island, SCS. Fresh inputs of DDTs were also reported in fish (Sun et al., 2014), sediments (Chen et al., 2006; Li et al., 2014), air and surface seawater (Zhang et al., 2007) from the northern SCS. The ratios of o,p 0 -DDT/p,p 0 -DDT in fish samples were less than 1 (except one DT sample, 1.32), suggesting that DDT was unlikely from dicofol. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research.
"where : " I " is the total mass inventory ( in metric tons ) of organic marker , " C i " is the mean concentration of organic marker ( in ng g À1 dw ) in the study area , " A " represents the water area ( w160 km 2 ) , " d " is the thickness of the sediment sampled ( d ¼ 2 cm ) and " r " represents the density of the sediment ( w1 . 5 g cm À3 ) ( Chen et al . , 2006 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Babitonga Bay is a South Atlantic estuary with significant ecological function; it is part of the last remaining areas of mangrove communities in the Southern Hemisphere. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of the faecal sterols and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in surface sediments and to perform an integrated evaluation of several molecular marker indices to assess the sewage contamination status in the study area. The highest observed concentrations of faecal sterols (coprostanol + epicoprostanol) and LABs were 6.65 μg g−1 and 413.3 ng g−1, respectively. Several faecal sterol indices were calculated and correlated with coprostanol levels; these analyses showed that the index limits presented in the current literature could underestimate the sewage contamination in this study area. For the overall estuarine system, a low sewage impact may be assumed based on the low total mass inventories calculated for coprostanol (between 1.4% and 4.8%).
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