Article

Seasonal variations in concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water and reclaimed wastewater in southern California.

Dynaflow, Inc., 10621-J Iron Bridge Road, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 03/2006; 40(3):687-95. DOI: 10.1021/es051380x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Southern California imports nearly all of its potable water from two sources: the Colorado River and the California State Water Project (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin). Sewage treatment plant effluent (STPE) heavily impacts both of these sources. A survey of raw and treated drinking water from four water filtration plants in San Diego County showed the occurrence of several polar organic "pharmaceuticals and personal care products" (PPCP). These included phthalate esters, sunscreens, clofibrate, clofribric acid, ibuprofen, triclosan, and DEET. Several of these were also found in the finished water, such as di(ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzophenone, ibuprofen, and triclosan. Occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were highly seasonally dependent, and reached maximums when the flow of the San Joaquin River was low and the quantity of imported water was high. The maximum concentrations of the PPCPs measured in the raw water were correlated with low flow conditions in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that feeds the State Water Project. The PPCP concentrations in raw imported water in the summer months approached that of reclaimed nonpotable wastewater.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
315 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PHARMACEUTICALS are designed to have a physiological effect …..on humans and animals in trace concentrations. Persistence against biological degradation and their biological activity are key properties of these pollutants. Increasing consumption of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) and their discharge to the municipal wastewater via excrete are a growing danger for water quality and thus for the health of citizens. The entire discharge volume of medicines into the sewage net and the inefficiency of suitable wastewater treatment solutions to face such a problem, leads to high pharmaceuticals content in the drinking water. Due to its low degradability, 80% of these substances are raw discharged by excretion and flushed to the toilets and sewers to the sewage plants, where no rejection takes place, thus leading to growth of bacterial resistance. This leads to high pharmaceuticals content in the drinking water, people assimilate these substances, resulting in every time higher difficulties when treating common illnesses. The aim of the present article is to review the issue of PhACs in the environment. The review focuses on the source, presence, fate, elimination, and treatment of PhACs in water and wastewater. This review includes: characteristics, occurrence and pathways of PhACs in water and wastewater, fate in the oriented sanitation, environmental and public health impacts. Furthermore, preventing pharmaceuticals in drinking-water, treatment technologies for their removal, knowledge gaps and future research for pharmaceuticals in drinking-water are also discussed. Advanced oxidation techniques, biological treatment systems, separation and treatment of urine for PhACs removal as effective tools are evaluated.
    01/2013; 566(5):449-471.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, molecular dynamics simulation has been used to investigate the interactions of both chiral forms of phenylglycine amino acid (R- and S-isomers) with micropores of ZSM5-zeolite. Calculated results show that phenylglycine molecules interact with zeolite surface by electrostatic interaction of their positively charged ammonium group and negatively charged carboxylic group. This leads to the formation of two hetero hydrogen bonds between amino groups and oxygen of zeolite framework and also one hydrogen bond between the carboxylic groups and the zeolite surface. Further analyses show that S-isomers have stronger interactions with zeolite surface in comparison to R-isomers. So, movement, radius of gyration and angle of orientation of S-isomers inside nanopores are decreased, while R-isomers interact more strongly with each other. However, both chiral forms have diffusive behaviour along the pores with the self diffusion coefficient of about two orders of magnitude less than that in free water. Graphical Abstract Molecular dynamics simulation has been used to investigate the interactions of both chiral forms of Phenylglycine amino-acid with micropores of ZSM5-zeolite. Results show that S-isomers have stronger interactions with zeolite surface in comparison to R-isomers, while R-isomers have the strong interaction with each other which cause their effective passage inside pores with higher diffusion coefficient.
    Journal of Chemical Sciences 05/2014; 126(3):569-578. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Triphenyl phosphate (TPP), one of the most widely used organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), has frequently been detected in the environment and biota. However, knowledge of its toxicological effects is limited. The present study was conducted to determine the adverse effects of TPP on the thyroid endocrine system of embryonic/larval zebrafish, and the underlying mechanisms for these effects were studied using rat pituitary (GH3) and thyroid follicular (FRTL-5) cell lines. In the GH3 cells, TPP up-regulated the expression of the tshβ, trα, and trβ genes, while T3, a positive control, down-regulated the expression of these genes. In the FRTL-5 cells, the expression of the nis and tpo genes was significantly up-regulated, suggesting that TPP stimulates thyroid hormone synthesis in the thyroid gland. In zebrafish larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf), TPP exposure led to significant increases in both T3 and T4 concentrations and expression of the genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Exposure to TPP also significantly up-regulated the expression of the genes related to the metabolism (dio1), transport (ttr), and elimination (ugt1ab) of thyroid hormones. The down-regulation of the crh and tshβ genes in the zebrafish larvae suggests the activation of a central regulatory feedback mechanism induced by the increased T3 levels in vivo. Taken together, our observations show that TPP could increase the thyroid hormone concentrations in the early life stages of zebrafish by disrupting the central regulation and hormone synthesis pathways.
    Aquatic Toxicology. 01/2015; 160C.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
508 Downloads
Available from
Sep 18, 2014
Available from