Seasonal Variations in Concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Drinking Water and Reclaimed Wastewater in Southern California

Dynaflow, Inc., 10621-J Iron Bridge Road, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2006; 40(3):687-95. DOI: 10.1021/es051380x
Source: PubMed


Southern California imports nearly all of its potable water from two sources: the Colorado River and the California State Water Project (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin). Sewage treatment plant effluent (STPE) heavily impacts both of these sources. A survey of raw and treated drinking water from four water filtration plants in San Diego County showed the occurrence of several polar organic "pharmaceuticals and personal care products" (PPCP). These included phthalate esters, sunscreens, clofibrate, clofribric acid, ibuprofen, triclosan, and DEET. Several of these were also found in the finished water, such as di(ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzophenone, ibuprofen, and triclosan. Occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were highly seasonally dependent, and reached maximums when the flow of the San Joaquin River was low and the quantity of imported water was high. The maximum concentrations of the PPCPs measured in the raw water were correlated with low flow conditions in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that feeds the State Water Project. The PPCP concentrations in raw imported water in the summer months approached that of reclaimed nonpotable wastewater.

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    • "Clofibrate Pharmaceutical 270 ng/L Germany [16] Clofibric acid Pharmaceutical 70-7300 ng/L Germany [16] Diclofenac Pharmaceutical 0.4–0.9 mg/L Germany [17] Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Up to 200 ng/L Germany [16] Paracetamol Pharmaceutical 211 ng/L France [18] Caffeine Stimulant 0.237 mg/L Italy [19] Triclosan Germicide 0.734 mg/L USA [20] Dimethyl phthalate Plasticizer 2.36 mg/L USA [20] Diethyl phthalate Plasticizer 261 ng/L Spain [21] Microcystin Algal toxin <1 mg/L Switzerland [22] "
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    ABSTRACT: Adsorption mechanism of diclofenac and isoproturon onto activated carbon has been proposed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption capacity and optimum adsorption isotherms were predicted by nonlinear regression method. Different kinetic equations, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion model and Bangham kinetic model, were applied to study the adsorption kinetics of emerging contaminants on activated carbon in two aqueous matrices.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; 50(12):1241-1248. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1055149 · 1.16 Impact Factor
    • "Iberian Peninsula that were sampled in 2010 and 2011, pharmaceuticals and personal care products were identified in all four rivers, with the category of pharmaceuticals and hormones present in higher concentrations in the water than personal care products (Kuzmanovic et al. 2015). These results are consistent with the findings of other researchers, who have also identified PPCP in drinking and wastewaters in many distinct regions of the world, such as South Korea, China, and the USA (Kim et al. 2007; Loraine and Pettigrove 2006; Oliveira et al. 2015; Qiao et al. 2011). "
    Environmental Chemistry Letters 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10311-015-0524-4 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "C = control reach; I1 = 1st impact reach after effluent; I2 = 2nd impact reach after effluent; I3 = 3rd impact reach after effluent. 5 A. Ruhí et al. / Science of the Total Environment xxx (2015) xxx–xxx Please cite this article as: Ruhí, A., et al., Bioaccumulation and trophic magnification of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in a Mediterranean river food web, Sci Total Environ (2015), in the load entering the WWTP, in removal efficiencies, and in dilution capacity owing to variation in river discharge (Vieno et al., 2005; Loraine and Pettigrove, 2006; Sui et al., 2011) control effective exposure to biofilm and invertebrates over their lifetimes. Thus, variation (over time) in the number and concentration of compounds found in water would have likely altered BAFs if a longer time window had been considered . "
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence exists that emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can be bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms. However, the relative role of trophic transfers in the acquisition of emerging pollutants by aquatic organisms remains largely unexplored. In freshwater ecosystems, wastewater treatment plants are a major source of PhACs and EDCs. Here we studied the entrance of emerging pollutants and their flow through riverine food webs in an effluent-influenced river. To this end we assembled a data set on the composition and concentrations of a broad spectrum of PhACs (25 compounds) and EDCs (12 compounds) in water, biofilm, and three aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa with different trophic positions and feeding strategies (Ancylus fluviatilis, Hydropsyche sp., Phagocata vitta). We tested for similarities in pollutant levels among these compartments, and we compared observed bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) to those predicted by a previously-developed empirical model based on octanol-water distribution coefficients (Dow). Despite a high variation in composition and levels of emerging pollutants across food web compartments, observed BAFs in Hydropsyche and Phagocata matched, on average, those already predicted. Three compounds (the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, the lipid regulator gemfibrozil, and the flame retardant TBEP) were detected in water, biofilm and (at least) one macroinvertebrate taxa. TBEP was the only compound present in all taxa and showed magnification across trophic levels. This suggests that prey consumption may be, in some cases, a significant exposure route. This study advances the notion that both waterborne exposure and trophic interactions need to be taken into account when assessing the potential ecological risks of emerging pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Science of The Total Environment 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.009 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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