Frameless image-guided stereotactic brain biopsy procedure: Diagnostic yield, surgical morbidity, and comparison with the frame-based technique
ABSTRACT The gold standard for stereotactic brain biopsy target localization has been frame-based stereotaxy. Recently, frameless stereotactic techniques have become increasingly utilized. Few authors have evaluated this procedure, analyzed preoperative predictors of diagnostic yield, or explored the differences in diagnostic yield and morbidity rate between the frameless and frame-based techniques.
A consecutive series of 110 frameless and 160 frame-based image-guided stereotactic biopsy procedures was reviewed. Associated variables for both techniques were reviewed and compared. All stereotactic biopsy procedures were included in a risk factor analysis of nondiagnostic biopsy sampling. Frameless stereotaxy led to a diagnostic yield of 89%, with a total permanent morbidity rate of 6% and a mortality rate of 1%. Larger lesions were fivefold more likely to yield diagnostic tissues. Deep-seated lesions were 2.7-fold less likely to yield diagnostic tissues compared with cortical lesions. Frameless compared with frame-based stereotactic biopsy procedures showed no significant differences in diagnostic yield or transient or permanent morbidity. For cortical lesions, more than one needle trajectory was required more frequently to obtain diagnostic tissues with frame-based as opposed to frameless stereotaxy, although this factor was not associated with morbidity.
With regard to diagnostic yield and complication rate, the frameless stereotactic biopsy procedure was found to be comparable to or better than the frame-based method. Smaller and deep-seated lesions together were risk factors for a nondiagnostic tissue yield. Frameless stereotaxy may represent a more efficient means of obtaining biopsy specimens of cortical lesions but is otherwise similar to the frame-based technique.
- SourceAvailable from: Luciano Furlanetti
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- "Reavey- Cantwell  also described a platform linked to the Mayfield holder, called " beanbag head-holder " , that enable neuronavigation without pinning. Moreover, large studies showed that frameless stereotactic surgery takes more time in the operating room and is more expensive than frame-based procedures, although the diagnosis and complication rates are equivalent . Owen and Linskey  report their experience in frame-based biopsy and concluded that frameless stereotactic biopsy should not be used for approaching brainstem, pineal and deep peri-vascular lesions. "
ABSTRACT: Stereotactic frame-based procedures proved to be precise, safe and are of widespread use among adult patients. Regarding pediatric patients few data is available, therefore the use of the stereotactic frame remains controversial in this population. This motivated us to report our experience in stereotactic procedures in the youngest patients and review the literature concerning this subject. All frame-based procedures performed in patients younger than seven years in the University of Freiburg during the last 10 years were retrospectively analyzed and discussed under the light of the current literature. The studied population was composed of 72 patients under the age of seven (mean 3.4 ±2.1 years-old), in whom 99 stereotactic procedures were performed. Brain tumor was present in 60 patients, hydrocephalus in five, cystic lesions in three, intracranial abscess in three and epilepsy in one patient. Stereotactic surgery was performed in 36 cases for brachytherapy, in 29 for biopsy, in 20 cases for cyst puncture, in eight for stereotactically guided endoscopic ventriculostomy, in five for catheter placement and in one case for depth electrode insertion. The overall complication rate was 5%. There were three cases of pin penetration through the skull, one case of frame dislocation after extensive cyst drainage and two skull fractures. Neurologic deficit related to frame fixation was observed in none of the cases. In disagreement with other authors, no case of pin related infection, air embolism, hematoma or CSF leak was observed. Frame-based stereotactic neurosurgery is a safe technique also in the youngest patients. Rather than the simple use of torque-limiting devices training and experience in the manual adjustment of the stereotactic frame in children have been proven to be crucial factors that contribute to reducing pin related complications.Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 12/2014; 130. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.12.011 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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- "Since then, developments in image guidance and computer-assisted technologies have extended the efficacy of neurosurgery and the scope of pathologies that can be successfully addressed by surgical intervention . Applications range from intracranial tissue biopsy (Woodworth et al 2006) and tumor resection (Schulder et al 1998) to ventricular shunt (Kobayashi et al 2012) and electrode placement (Bjartmarz and Rehncrona 2007), establishing surgical guidance as the modern standard of care in neurosurgery. The last two decades have seen a shift from the use of clamps and fixation devices to frameless alternatives that track a sparse set of markers (Smith et al 1994), thereby allowing navigation within the preoperatively acquired image of the patient. "
ABSTRACT: An algorithm for intensity-based 3D-2D registration of CT and C-arm fluoroscopy is evaluated for use in surgical guidance, specifically considering the low-dose limits of the fluoroscopic x-ray projections. The registration method is based on a framework using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to identify the 3D patient pose that maximizes the gradient information similarity metric. Registration performance was evaluated in an anthropomorphic head phantom emulating intracranial neurosurgery, using target registration error (TRE) to characterize accuracy and robustness in terms of 95% confidence upper bound in comparison to that of an infrared surgical tracking system. Three clinical scenarios were considered: (1) single-view image + guidance, wherein a single x-ray projection is used for visualization and 3D-2D guidance; (2) dual-view image + guidance, wherein one projection is acquired for visualization, combined with a second (lower-dose) projection acquired at a different C-arm angle for 3D-2D guidance; and (3) dual-view guidance, wherein both projections are acquired at low dose for the purpose of 3D-2D guidance alone (not visualization). In each case, registration accuracy was evaluated as a function of the entrance surface dose associated with the projection view(s). Results indicate that images acquired at a dose as low as 4 μGy (approximately one-tenth the dose of a typical fluoroscopic frame) were sufficient to provide TRE comparable or superior to that of conventional surgical tracking, allowing 3D-2D guidance at a level of dose that is at most 10% greater than conventional fluoroscopy (scenario #2) and potentially reducing the dose to approximately 20% of the level in a conventional fluoroscopically guided procedure (scenario #3).Physics in Medicine and Biology 08/2014; 59(18):5329. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/59/18/5329 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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- "Brain biopsies in PACNS can have a false negative rate of up to 25% . Brain biopsy is associated with a transient and permanent morbidity of 14% and 4% respectively . "
ABSTRACT: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare disease of unclear etiology. There is no single test diagnostic of primary angiitis of the central nervous system. We report an unusual pattern on brain magnetic resonance imaging that might be specific for primary angiitis of the central nervous system. A 47-year-old Caucasian man developed progressive bilateral hand tremor, difficulty walking, cognitive slowing and headache. A physical examination showed bilateral hand tremor with dysmetria, hyperreflexia and abnormal gait. Magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed bilateral, symmetrical, increased intensity on T2-weighted images concurrent with linear contrast enhancement in a radial distribution throughout his white matter, sparing subcortical regions in his centrum semiovale, corona radiata, basal ganglia and brainstem. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated elevated choline and decreased N-acetyl aspartate. Except for elevated protein and lymphocytic pleocytosis, examination of his cerebrospinal fluid showed no abnormalities. Serological tests for rheumatologic, vasculitic, paraneoplastic, infectious and peroxisomal disorders were negative. A brain biopsy revealed primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Our patient was treated with steroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide, with improvement in signs and symptoms as well as changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral, symmetrical, increased intensity on T2-weighted images concurrent with linear contrast enhancement in a radial distribution throughout the white matter on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be recognized as a feature of primary angiitis of the central nervous system, and might avoid the need for a brain biopsy to diagnose primary angiitis of the central nervous system.Journal of Medical Case Reports 01/2014; 8(1):26. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-26