[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to gather data on condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in Indonesia and to study the reasons for not using condoms in order to provide new and existing condom promotion programs with information to improve their performance. Quantitative data were gathered by KABP surveys (n = 1450) and a condom diary with a sample of 204 female sex workers. Qualitative data were collected by conducting focus group discussions and in-depth interviews among female sex workers and pimps. Around 53% of sexual intercourses were reported to be protected, and 12% of these protected intercourses were preceded by clients' argumentation against it. Only 5.8% of sex workers consistently used condoms for a 2-week period of observation, and this figure decreased to 1.4% for a 4-week period. Reasons for not using condoms from the clients' side, as mentioned by the sex workers, were perceived less pleasure due to the condom and the belief that clients that are acquainted with the sex workers do not need protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or AIDS. The main reasons of female sex workers for not using condoms were the beliefs that boyfriends, native Indonesians and healthy-looking clients cannot spread STDs. Another reason stated was that sex workers had already taken other preventive measures, like taking antibiotics. The research also showed that pimps were not very supportive of condom use programs in Indonesia. Condom unacceptability is an important reason for not using condoms for both clients and female sex workers, whereas pimps, who are in the best position to encourage condom use, unfortunately consider condom use as a threat to their business. For the successful introduction of consistent condom use, it is necessary to design interventions for both sex workers and clients and to provide appropriate educational materials and preferred brands of condoms. Also, pimps must be involved in intervention programs.
AIDS Education and Prevention 05/2002; 14(2):102-16. DOI:10.1521/aeap.22.214.171.12401
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Cambodia is mainly caused by sexual transmission and the high-risk group in this country are female commercial sex workers (CSW). There are two types of CSW, direct CSW (DCSW) and indirect CSW (IDCSW), who are different from each other in sexual activities. This study was conducted in order to describe the risk factors on HIV for each type of CSW, and to establish effective preventive strategies against the HIV epidemic among CSW.
The participants, 143 DCSW and 94 IDCSW, were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine their demographic characteristics and behaviour. Blood samples were taken for serological tests on HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis and syphilis. The association between their behavioural pattern and their serological results was analysed.
The questionnaire study showed that IDCSW had a riskier behavioural pattern than DCSW. The HIV seroprevalence rates of the DCSW and the IDCSW were 52.4% and 22.3%, respectively. Univariate logistic analyses showed a significant association between HIV antibody (HIV-Ab) and current age, age at commencement of commercial sex work, duration of commercial sex work, and the seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis-IgG antibody (CT-IgG-Ab) among the DCSW. The analyses also showed a significant relationship between HIV-Ab and CT-IgG-Ab among the IDCSW.
Improving condom use rate is very important in order to prevent an HIV epidemic among the two types of CSW. This study also suggests it is important to prevent sexually transmitted disease (STD) such as Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The STD control programme could be efficient for HIV prevention, especially among DCSW.
International Journal of Epidemiology 05/2000; 29(2):344-54. DOI:10.1093/ije/29.2.344
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether a previously established low sexually transmitted infection/HIV risk in prostitutes in London has been sustained, and to measure other occupational risks, including mortality.
9 year prospective study in west London.
402 prostitutes recruited from 1985 to 1991, 320 were followed up for 675 person years to 1994.
Condom use in commercial and non-commercial sex; viral and bacterial sexually transmitted infection at initial and follow up visits; death.
Condom use increased significantly from 1986 to 1993 and protected the majority of commercial sexual contacts. Baseline prevalence: HIV 1.3%, hepatitis C 6.7%, hepatitis B 6.6%, syphilis 2.3%, HTLV-I/II 0.4%, gonorrhoea 3.0%, chlamydia 8.2%, genital herpes 16.8%. Incidence (per 100 person years): HIV 0.2, hepatitis C 0.3, gonorrhoea 5.6, chlamydia 12.6, genital herpes 6.5. Viral infections were associated with injecting drug use and non-British nationality; bacterial infections were associated with numbers of non-commercial partners but not with sexual contacts at work. Four women died during the course of the study; two had AIDS, two were murdered. This mortality of 5.93 per 1000 person years was 12 times the expected rate for women of a similar age.
This study shows that it is possible to have a larger number of sexual partners and remain free from sexually transmitted infections provided that condoms are used consistently: there has been a sustained increase in condom use in the sex industry. None the less, prostitutes are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections, primarily through non-commercial sexual partnerships. Infectious diseases are only one of the risks facing prostitutes, as illustrated by the mortality from violence as well as from HIV infection.
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