The effect of increase in dielectric values on specific absorption rate (SAR) in eye and head tissues following 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz radio frequency (RF) exposure.

Technology Platforms, Nokia Corporation, PO Box 301, FIN-00045 Nokia Group, Linnoitustie 6, 02600 Espoo, Finland.
Physics in Medicine and Biology (Impact Factor: 2.92). 04/2006; 51(6):1463-77. DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/51/6/007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Numerous studies have attempted to address the question of the RF energy absorption difference between children and adults using computational methods. They have assumed the same dielectric parameters for child and adult head models in SAR calculations. This has been criticized by many researchers who have stated that child organs are not fully developed, their anatomy is different and also their tissue composition is slightly different with higher water content. Higher water content would affect dielectric values, which in turn would have an effect on RF energy absorption. The objective of this study was to investigate possible variation in specific absorption rate (SAR) in the head region of children and adults by applying the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and using anatomically correct child and adult head models. In the calculations, the conductivity and permittivity of all tissues were increased from 5 to 20% but using otherwise the same exposure conditions. A half-wave dipole antenna was used as an exposure source to minimize the uncertainties of the positioning of a real mobile device and making the simulations easily replicable. Common mobile telephony frequencies of 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz were used in this study. The exposures of ear and eye regions were investigated. The SARs of models with increased dielectric values were compared to the SARs of the models where dielectric values were unchanged. The analyses suggest that increasing the value of dielectric parameters does not necessarily mean that volume-averaged SAR would increase. Under many exposure conditions, specifically at higher frequencies in eye exposure, volume-averaged SAR decreases. An increase of up to 20% in dielectric conductivity or both conductivity and permittivity always caused a SAR variation of less than 20%, usually about 5%, when it was averaged over 1, 5 or 10 g of cubic mass for all models. The thickness and composition of different tissue layers in the exposed regions within the human head play a more significant role in SAR variation compared to the variations (5-20%) of the tissue dielectric parameters.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates the variability of specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human eye. This variability results from changes in ocular axial length (OAL), which is common in many ophthalmologic and vision abnormalities, including myopia. A generic eye model was reconstructed according to published data. The feasibility of using the generic model in numerical research of electromagnetic fields (EMF) was demonstrated by means of comparative simulations with eye models reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans. Free-form deformation (FFD) was used to deform the OAL of the generic eye model. Thus, 64 deformed eyes were created and were categorized according to the OAL increase. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied in the simulations. The results revealed that changing the OAL does not increase EMF absorption in the eyes or the eye tissues. No additional induced temperature rise was produced by the changes of OAL. The results also indicated that the non-pathological increment of the OAL, which is inevitable during the childhood, does not increase the SAR in the eyes. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Bioelectromagnetics 02/2014; · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the numerical dosimetry for adult and children models exposed to CW signals of several wireless communication systems (UMTS, WiMax, and Bluetooth) within a partly shielded environment represented by a realistic car model. More than 20 mono- and multi-source exposure scenarios are considered. Computational results demonstrate that, for all considered exposure scenarios, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is at least 40 times (whole-body average) and 10 times (local SAR) lower than the exposure limits fixed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The whole-body average SAR values for children are found to be typically 1.1–1.3 times higher than those of adults. Under several exposure scenarios, the local SAR in the limbs of children models is 2–3 times higher than corresponding values in adult models. The power density distributions within the car have been also analyzed for one, two, and three simultaneously emitting devices. The results show that the homogeneity of the power density distribution increases with increasing number of simultaneously operating transmitters. These data suggest that the use of several wireless communication devices within a car leads to exposure levels that are several orders of magnitude below international exposure limits, even for the multi-exposure scenarios for both adult and children models.
    International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies 12/2011; 3(06). · 0.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myelin provides the electrical insulation for the central and peripheral nervous system and develops rapidly in the first years of life, but continues into mid-life or later. Myelin integrity is vital to healthy nervous system development and functioning. This review outlines the development of myelin through life, and then considers the evidence for an association between myelin integrity and exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) typical in the modern world. In RF-EMF peer-reviewed literature examining relevant impacts such as myelin sheath, multiple sclerosis, and other myelin-related diseases, cellular examination was included. There are surprisingly little data available in each area, but considered together a picture begins to emerge in RF-EMF-exposed cases: (1) significant morphological lesions in the myelin sheath of rats; (2) a greater risk of multiple sclerosis in a study subgroup; (3) effects in proteins related to myelin production; and (4) physical symptoms in individuals with functional impairment electrohypersensitivity, many of which are the same as if myelin were affected by RF-EMF exposure, giving rise to symptoms of demyelination. In the latter, there are exceptions; headache is common only in electrohypersensitivity, while ataxia is typical of demyelination but infrequently found in the former group. Overall, evidence from in vivo and in vitro and epidemiological studies suggests an association between RF-EMF exposure and either myelin deterioration or a direct impact on neuronal conduction, which may account for many electrohypersensitivity symptoms. The most vulnerable are likely to be those in utero through to at least mid-teen years, as well as ill and elderly individuals.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B 09/2014; 17(5):247-58. · 5.15 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from