Functional genomics of genes with small open reading frames (sORFs) in S. cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT Genes with small open reading frames (sORFs; <100 amino acids) represent an untapped source of important biology. sORFs largely escaped analysis because they were difficult to predict computationally and less likely to be targeted by genetic screens. Thus, the substantial number of sORFs and their potential importance have only recently become clear. To investigate sORF function, we undertook the first functional studies of sORFs in any system, using the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on independent experimental approaches and computational analyses, evidence exists for 299 sORFs in the S. cerevisiae genome, representing approximately 5% of the annotated ORFs. We determined that a similar percentage of sORFs are annotated in other eukaryotes, including humans, and 184 of the S. cerevisiae sORFs exhibit similarity with ORFs in other organisms. To investigate sORF function, we constructed a collection of gene-deletion mutants of 140 newly identified sORFs, each of which contains a strain-specific "molecular barcode," bringing the total number of sORF deletion strains to 247. Phenotypic analyses of the new gene-deletion strains identified 22 sORFs required for haploid growth, growth at high temperature, growth in the presence of a nonfermentable carbon source, or growth in the presence of DNA damage and replication-arrest agents. We provide a collection of sORF deletion strains that can be integrated into the existing deletion collection as a resource for the yeast community for elucidating gene function. Moreover, our analyses of the S. cerevisiae sORFs establish that sORFs are conserved across eukaryotes and have important biological functions.
Article: A genome-wide screen for methyl methanesulfonate-sensitive mutants reveals genes required for S phase progression in the presence of DNA damage.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We performed a systematic screen of the set of approximately 5,000 viable Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid gene deletion mutants and have identified 103 genes whose deletion causes sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). In total, 40 previously uncharacterized alkylation damage response genes were identified. Comparison with the set of genes known to be transcriptionally induced in response to MMS revealed surprisingly little overlap with those required for MMS resistance, indicating that transcriptional regulation plays little, if any, role in the response to MMS damage. Clustering of the MMS response genes on the basis of their cross-sensitivities to hydroxyurea, UV radiation, and ionizing radiation revealed a DNA damage core of genes required for responses to a broad range of DNA-damaging agents. Of particular significance, we identified a subset of genes that show a specific MMS response, displaying defects in S phase progression only in the presence of MMS. These genes may promote replication fork stability or processivity during encounters between replication forks and DNA damage.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2003; 99(26):16934-9. · 9.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Short open reading frames (ORFs) occur frequently in primary genome sequence. Distinguishing bona fide small genes from the tens of thousands of short ORFs is one of the most challenging aspects of genome annotation. Direct experimental evidence is often required. Here we use a combination of expression profiling and mass spectrometry to verify the independent transcription of 138 and the translation of 50 previously nonannotated genes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Through combined evidence, we propose the addition of 62 new genes to the genome and provide experimental support for the inclusion of 10 previously identified genes.Genome Research 09/2002; 12(8):1210-20. · 13.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have designed and utilized two in vivo assays of kinetochore integrity in S. cerevisiae. One assay detects relaxation of a transcription block formed at centromeres; the other detects an increase in the mitotic stability of a dicentric test chromosome. ctf13-30 and ctf14-42 were identified as putative kinetochore mutants by both assays. CTF14 is identical to NDC10/CBF2, a recently identified essential gene that encodes a 110 kd kinetochore component. CTF13 is an essential gene that encodes a predicted 478 amino acid protein with no homology to known proteins. ctf13 mutants missegregate chromosomes at permissive temperature and transiently arrest at nonpermissive temperature as large-budded cells with a G2 DNA content and a short spindle. Antibodies recognizing epitope-tagged CTF13 protein decrease the electrophoretic mobility of a CEN DNA-protein complex formed in vitro. Together, the genetic and biochemical data indicate that CTF13 is an essential kinetochore protein.Cell 06/1993; 73(4):761-74. · 32.40 Impact Factor