Article

Determination of patulin in apple juice by liquid chromatography

Instituto Adolfo Lutz - Laboratório I de Ribeirão Preto, Rua Minas, 877, CEP 14085-410, Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil.
Journal of AOAC International (Impact Factor: 1.39). 01/2006; 89(1):139-43.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A method was developed and validated in-house for the determination of patulin (PAT), a toxic mold metabolite, in apple juice. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate-hexane and analyzed by liquid chromatography equipped with a C18 column and diode array detector. The mobile phase used for the quantification was water-ethanol, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The method showed a mean recovery of 84.8%, the relative standard deviation obtained in the precision study was <7.7%, the quantification and detection limits were 7 and 3 microg/L, respectively, and the linear range for PAT in apple juice was 2.6-650 microg/L. The ruggedness was evaluated by an intralaboratory experiment, in which 5 factors were studied, and only one was found to influence the observed results. The developed method is fast, practical, and simple; the solvents (except hexane) and reagents used were nontoxic. The results of the validation confirmed the efficiency of the method, which is sensitive enough to be used in studies required to quantify PAT in apple juice.

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    • "Almost all isolates of P. expansum are patulin producers (Andersen et al., 2004). Patulin is toxic for animals, causing intestinal injuries, including epithelial cell degeneration, inflammation, ulceration, and hemorrhages; it has also been shown to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic and teratogenic (Mahfoud et al., 2002; Iha and Sabino, 2006). "
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    International journal of food microbiology 03/2013; 162(2):167-73. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.01.007 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    • "Apple juice contaminated with PAT is hazardous for human health, not only due to the effects of PAT but also due to the toxicity produced when PAT is combined with other mycotoxins. Patulin is toxic for animals; it induces intestinal injuries, including epithelial cell degeneration, inflammation, ulceration, and haemorrhages ; it has also been shown to be mutagenic, carcinogenic immunotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic and teratogenic (Mahfoud et al., 2002; Iha and Sabino, 2006). Acute symptoms of Patulin consumption can include agitation , convulsions, edema, ulceration and vomiting (Speijers, 2004). "
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