Comparison of the efficacy of inactivated combination and modified-live virus vaccines against challenge infection with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1).

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.49). 05/2006; 24(17):3636-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.01.062
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a ubiquitous alphaherpesvirus of horses which causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion and myeloencephalopathy. To test the efficacy of commercial vaccines in protection against neurological EHV-1 challenge, groups of five horses were immunized with modified-live virus or an inactivated vaccine, or received placebo. Horses were challenged by aerosol with a recent virus isolate obtained from a case of paralytic EHV-1. The duration of fever decreased significantly in the modified-live virus vaccine group. Three animals in each of the inactivate and control groups showed alterations in neurological status. When compared to the inactivated vaccine, the modified-live virus vaccine induced significantly lower virus-neutralizing antibodies over the course of the study. The modified-live virus vaccine resulted in low EHV-1-specific IgG(T)/IgGa and IgG(T)/IgGb ratios, suggesting a bias towards a cytotoxic immune response. Virus shedding from the nasopharynx was almost undetectable in the modified-live virus group, and was significantly lower when compared to that in the other groups. Normalized lymphocyte viral genome copies were similar for the three groups, although animals vaccinated with the modified-live virus vaccine were qPCR-positive on fewer days when compared to those of the other groups. Based on data from neurological signs, rectal temperatures, virus isolation from nasal swabs and immune response specificity, we concluded that protection induced by the modified-live virus vaccine is superior to that induced by the inactivated combination vaccine.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A large multistate outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) occurred in May 2011 among horses that participated in a competitive event. OBJECTIVE: To identify EHM risk factors among horses with a common exposure venue. ANIMALS: A total of 123 horses: 19 horses with EHM, 14 equine herpesvirus-1 cases with no reported neurologic signs, and 90 control horses. METHODS: EHM case survey data were compared with data from EHV-1 cases with no neurologic signs and healthy controls using univariable and multivariable methods. RESULTS: Significant factors associated with higher risk for EHM compared with EHV-1 cases with no neurologic signs were (1) greater number of biosecurity risks at the event, (2) female sex, (3) increasing number of classes competed in at the event, and (4) an interaction between sex and number of classes competed in. In the EHM versus controls comparison, in addition to sex and biosecurity risks, factors associated with higher EHM risk included EHV-1 vaccination in the 5 weeks before the event and increasing number of events attended in April 2011; zinc dietary supplementation was associated with decreased risk. An interaction between sex and the number of events attended in April 2011 also was significant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Findings from this study suggest that dietary zinc supplementation may be associated with decreased risk of EHM. Several factors were associated with increased risk of EHM. Additional investigations of factors associated with risk of EHM are warranted to evaluate the importance of these factors in this complex disease of horses.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 02/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The equine herpesviruses type 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) are ubiquitous pathogens that affect horse populations on all continents. Despite widespread vaccination, EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections remain a permanent risk. While the two viruses share a high degree of genetic and antigenic similarity, they differ significantly in host range and pathogenicity. Compared to EHV-4, which mainly infects horses and causes respiratory disease, EHV-1 has a broader host range and can result in respiratory disease, abortions, neonatal death, and equine herpesvirusmyeloencephalopathy (EHM). Recent studies have elucidated a number of mechanisms that may, at least partly, explain the differential pathogenic potential of the two viruses. While both EHV-1 and EHV-4 can escape host immune responses and establish latent infection, there are differences with respect to virus entry and their ability to interfere with the innate immune response. Understanding the virus' repertoire of immunomodulatory mechanisms may lead the way to develop more efficient vaccines.
    Veterinary Microbiology 07/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Horses have 11 immunoglobulin isotypes: IgM, IgD, IgA, IgE, and seven IgG subclasses designated as IgG1-IgG7, each of which are distinguished by separate genes encoding the constant heavy chain regions. Immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes have different functions during the immune response and pathogen-specific isotypes can be used as indicators for immunity and protection from disease. In addition to existing monoclonal antibodies to various equine Igs, quantification of the individual isotypes requires pure isotype standards. In this report, we describe a fusion between X63-Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cells and horse PBMC to create equine-murine heterohybridomas. Initial screening for Ig production was performed by ELISA. Further testing was performed by a new 5-plex fluorescent bead-based assay able to simultaneously detect equine IgM, IgG1, IgG4/7, IgG5, and IgG6. Production of IgG3 and IgE was tested by separate bead assays. Seven stable heterohybridoma clones producing monoclonal equine IgM, IgG1, IgG3, IgG4/7, IgG5, IgG6 and IgE were created. Purified Ig isotypes were then tested by SDS-PAGE. The pure, monoclonal equine Ig isotypes and the new equine Ig multiplex testing developed here are valuable tools to quantify antibody responses and to accurately determine individual isotypes concentrations in horses.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 02/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor