Comparison of the efficacy of inactivated combination and modified-live virus vaccines against challenge infection with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1).
ABSTRACT Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a ubiquitous alphaherpesvirus of horses which causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion and myeloencephalopathy. To test the efficacy of commercial vaccines in protection against neurological EHV-1 challenge, groups of five horses were immunized with modified-live virus or an inactivated vaccine, or received placebo. Horses were challenged by aerosol with a recent virus isolate obtained from a case of paralytic EHV-1. The duration of fever decreased significantly in the modified-live virus vaccine group. Three animals in each of the inactivate and control groups showed alterations in neurological status. When compared to the inactivated vaccine, the modified-live virus vaccine induced significantly lower virus-neutralizing antibodies over the course of the study. The modified-live virus vaccine resulted in low EHV-1-specific IgG(T)/IgGa and IgG(T)/IgGb ratios, suggesting a bias towards a cytotoxic immune response. Virus shedding from the nasopharynx was almost undetectable in the modified-live virus group, and was significantly lower when compared to that in the other groups. Normalized lymphocyte viral genome copies were similar for the three groups, although animals vaccinated with the modified-live virus vaccine were qPCR-positive on fewer days when compared to those of the other groups. Based on data from neurological signs, rectal temperatures, virus isolation from nasal swabs and immune response specificity, we concluded that protection induced by the modified-live virus vaccine is superior to that induced by the inactivated combination vaccine.
- SourceAvailable from: Gisela Soboll Hussey[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A commercial bovine IFN-gamma-specific monoclonal antibody was used to measure antigen-specific IFN-gamma production by equine lymphocytes. Paired PBMC samples were collected from six ponies prior to and 10 days after challenge infection with equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). Each sample was stimulated in vitro with EHV-1, virus-free medium, or PMA and ionomycin, and labelled with monoclonal antibodies specific for various equine lymphocyte subset markers. Following fixation, intracellular IFN-gamma was detected using a FITC-conjugated bovine IFN-gamma-specific monoclonal antibody. In vitro restimulation of PBMC with EHV-1 induced IFN-gamma production by a significantly higher percentage of total (CD5(+)) T lymphocytes, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte subsets among post-EHV-1 infection PBMC samples compared to pre-infection samples. This response was associated with an increase in virus-specific CTL activity, a critical immune effector for the control of EHV-1 infection and disease. No significant increase in IFN-gamma production by B lymphocytes was observed. These data demonstrate that EHV-1 challenge infection of ponies results in increased production of IFN-gamma by virus-specific T lymphocytes, and that this response can be quantitated using flow cytometry.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 03/2005; 103(3-4):207-15. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rhodococcus equi infects and causes pneumonia in foals between 2 and 4 months of age but does not induce disease in immunocompetent adults, which are immune and remain clinically normal upon challenge. Understanding the protective response against R. equi in adult horses is important in the development of vaccine strategies, since those mechanisms likely reflect the protective phenotype that an effective vaccine would generate in the foal. Twelve adult horses were challenged with virulent R. equi and shown to be protected against clinical disease. Stimulation of cells obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with either R. equi or the vaccine candidate protein VapA resulted in significant proliferation and a significant increase in the level of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) expression by day 7 postchallenge. The levels of interleukin-4 expression were also increased at day 7 postchallenge; however, this increase was not antigen specific. Anamnestic increases in the levels of binding to R. equi and VapA of all immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody isotypes [IgGa, IgGb, IgG(T)] examined were detected postchallenge. The levels of R. equi- and VapA-specific IgGa and IgGb antibodies, the IgG isotypes that preferentially opsonize and fix complement in horses, were dramatically enhanced postchallenge. The antigen-specific proliferation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, the levels of IFN-gamma expression by these cells, and the anamnestic increases in the levels of opsonizing IgG isotypes are consistent with stimulation of a memory response in immune adult horses and represent correlates for vaccine development in foals.Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 12/2002; 9(6):1270-6. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The IR6 protein of different plaque isolates from three passages of the equine herpesvirus 1 strain Rac was investigated. Southern blot and DNA sequence analyses revealed that plaque isolates from the 12th passage (RacL11 and RacL22) retained both copies of the IR6 gene, whereas two different genotypes were observed by the 185th passage: RacM24 still harbored both copies of the IR6 gene, whereas RacM36 deleted one of the two copies. In the 256th passage (RacH), both copies of the IR6 gene were absent. As compared to the wild-type IR6 protein, both the RacM24 and RacM36 IR6 protein displayed amino acid exchanges at positions 34, 42, 110, and 134 of the 272 amino acid polypeptide. It is shown that (i) the IR6 protein is nonessential for virus growth in vitro. (ii) In RacL11-infected equine and rodent cells, the typical rod-like appearance of the IR6 protein could be detected from 6 hr p.i., whereas in RacM24- and RacM36-infected cells formation of these structures was not observed. (iii) The RacL11 IR6 gene product was present in both the nuclei and cytoplasmic fraction of infected cells. In contrast, the IR6 protein of both RacM24 and RacM36 colocalized with cytoplasmic membrane vesicles. (iv) The RacL11 and RacL22 IR6 protein is present in viral nucleocapsids, whereas that of RacM24 and RacM36 is not incorporated into virions. (v) The RacL11 IR6 gene product aggregated to disulfide-linked oligomers, whereas the RacM24 and RacM36 IR6 protein showed only marginal oligomerization. (vi) In COS7 cells transfected with constructs expressing either the full-length RacL11-IR6 protein or a truncated form lacking the 81 carboxyterminal amino acids, the formation of rod-like structures was observed, indicating that another viral protein is not necessary for aggregation of the IR6 protein. In contrast, the IR6 protein expressed from constructs derived from either RacM24 or RacM36 failed to form these structures. (vii) Analyses of chimeric RacL11-RacM24 IR6 proteins suggest a crucial role for amino acid Leu-134 in the ability of the IR6 protein to form the rod-like structures.Virology 04/1996; 217(2):442-51. · 3.37 Impact Factor