Vibration transmitted to the whole body or part of it has been extensively studied in relation to the risks to the health and safety of workers. These studies have highlighted the particular danger of lower-back morbidity and spinal trauma arising after prolonged exposure to vibration. However, short-term exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) or the use of vibrating dumbbells can have beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this encouraging work, many manufacturers have developed exercise devices characterized by vibrating plates transmitting vibration to the whole body and vibrating dumbbells. Preliminary results seem to recommend WBV exercise as a therapeutic alternative for preventing/reversing sarcopenia and possibly osteoporosis. However, there is a paucity of well designed studies in the elderly. In particular, there is a lack of understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptive responses to vibration exposure, and of the most appropriate vibration parameters to be used in order to maximize gains and improve safety. The effectiveness of this novel exercise modality on musculoskeletal structures is examined in this review. The physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptive responses to vibration exercise are discussed and suggestions for future studies are made.
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"This finding has potentially important practical implications. For example, the exercise regimes (Kerr et al., 1996; Wallace and Cumming, 2000; Wolff et al., 1999) or vibration therapies (Cardinale and Rittweger, 2006; Flieger et al., 1998) designed to increase bone mass and/or to prevent bone mass loss could be optimized such that the musculoskeletal system is loaded with a frequency close to the natural frequencies of the targeted bone. Furthermore, the exercise regimes could be made subject-specific taking account of the natural frequencies of every specific subject. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been recently suggested that mechanical loads applied at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of bone could enhance bone apposition due to the resonance phenomenon. Other applications of bone modal analysis are also suggested. For the above-mentioned applications, it is important to understand how patient-specific bone shape and density distribution influence the natural frequencies of bones. We used finite element models to study the effects of bone shape and density distribution on the natural frequencies of the femur in free boundary conditions. A statistical shape and appearance model that describes shape and density distribution independently was created, based on a training set of 27 femora. The natural frequencies were then calculated for different shape modes varied around the mean shape while keeping the mean density distribution, for different appearance modes around the mean density distribution while keeping the mean bone shape, and for the 27 training femora. Single shape or appearance modes could cause up to 15% variations in the natural frequencies with certain modes having the greatest impact. For the actual femora, shape and density distribution changed the natural frequencies by up to 38%. First appearance mode that describes the general cortical bone thickness and trabecular bone density had one of the strongest impacts. The first appearance mode could therefore provide a sensitive measure of general bone health and disease progression. Since shape and density could cause large variations in the calculated natural frequencies, patient-specific FE models are needed for accurate estimation of bone natural frequencies.
Journal of Biomechanics 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.08.008 · 2.75 Impact Factor
"For inclusion to the trial, potential participants had to exhibit stable COPD, be living in a fully-independent residence, and have the capacity to complete ADLs [7,8]. Potential participants also had to be free of self-reported WBV contraindications  and successfully complete a battery of balance, vision and cognition tests . Potential participants were excluded if they were currently treated with corticosteroids or had experienced self-reported COPD exacerbations earlier than six months prior to the commencement of the trial. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benefits of community-based whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of exercise training for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been investigated. The low skill demand of WBV may enhance habitual sustainability to physical activity by people with COPD, provided efficacy of WBV can be established. The purpose of this trial was to compare a community-based WBV intervention with a sham WBV (SWBV) intervention and monitor exacerbations, exercise tolerance, and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with COPD.
Community-dwelling adults with a GOLD clinical diagnosis of COPD were recruited to the trial. This was a Phase II efficacy trial with crossover to sham intervention interspersed with two-week washout. Each six-week intervention consisted of two sessions per week of either WBV or SWBV. The interventions were completed in the home of each participant under supervision. The outcome measures were selected psychological (perceived dyspnoea) and physiological (heart rate and oxygen saturation) responses to exercise, simulated activities of daily living (timed-up-and got test and 5-chair stands test), and selected kinematic variables of gait across the 14-week trial.
Sixteen adults with stable COPD were recruited to the trial. No exacerbations were reported during the WBV or SWBV interventions. After WBV, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and gait improved (p <= 0.05), while there was no change after SWBV (p > 0.05). Despite five withdrawals during the washout period, a 100% compliance to each six-week intervention was noted.
Results showed that WBV did not exacerbate symptoms of COPD that can be associated with physical inactivity. The WBV intervention improved tests to simulate ADLs such as rising from a chair, turning, and walking gait with greater effect than a SWBV intervention. If a placebo effect was systemic to the WBV intervention, the effect was negligible. As a standalone community-based intervention, WBV was an efficacious mode of exercise training for people with stable COPD that did not negatively effect exercise tolerance or exacerbate the disease, while concurrently improving functional performance of the lower limbs.Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000508875.https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=362485.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 03/2014; 14(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-14-38 · 2.40 Impact Factor
"Muscle response and adaptation to vibrating force seems to be influenced by the characteristics of the input signal, i.e., frequency and amplitude , , as well as muscle tension –. The vibration frequencies adopted in previous works were in the range of 15–60 Hz , , . Previous studies on WBV exercise have suggested 30 Hz as the optimal training frequency for the vastus lateralis muscle . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested as an effective methodology to improve muscle strength and power performance. Several studies link the effects of vibration training to enhanced neuromuscular demand, typically ascribed to involuntary reflex mechanisms. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, limiting the identification of the most appropriate vibration training protocols. This study concerns the realization of a new vibration exercise system for the upper limbs. Amplitude, frequency, and baseline of the vibrating force, which is generated by an electromechanical actuator, can be adjusted independently. A second order model is employed to identify the relation between the generated force and the input voltage driving the actuator. Our results show a high correlation (0.99) between the second order model fit and the measured data, ensuring accurate control on the supplied force. The level of neuromuscular demand imposed by the system on the targeted muscles can be estimated by electromyography (EMG). However, EMG measurements during VE can be severely affected by motion artifacts. An adaptive least mean square algorithm is proposed to remove motion artifacts from the measured EMG data. Preliminary validation with 7 volunteers showed excellent motion artifact removal, enabling reliable evaluation of the neuromuscular activation.
IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering: a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 09/2012; 21(2). DOI:10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2219555 · 3.19 Impact Factor