Vibration exercise makes your muscles and bones stronger: fact or fiction?
ABSTRACT Vibration transmitted to the whole body or part of it has been extensively studied in relation to the risks to the health and safety of workers. These studies have highlighted the particular danger of lower-back morbidity and spinal trauma arising after prolonged exposure to vibration. However, short-term exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) or the use of vibrating dumbbells can have beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this encouraging work, many manufacturers have developed exercise devices characterized by vibrating plates transmitting vibration to the whole body and vibrating dumbbells. Preliminary results seem to recommend WBV exercise as a therapeutic alternative for preventing/reversing sarcopenia and possibly osteoporosis. However, there is a paucity of well designed studies in the elderly. In particular, there is a lack of understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptive responses to vibration exposure, and of the most appropriate vibration parameters to be used in order to maximize gains and improve safety. The effectiveness of this novel exercise modality on musculoskeletal structures is examined in this review. The physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptive responses to vibration exercise are discussed and suggestions for future studies are made.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Marco Cardinale, Jul 05, 2015
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ABSTRACT: It has been recently suggested that mechanical loads applied at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of bone could enhance bone apposition due to the resonance phenomenon. Other applications of bone modal analysis are also suggested. For the above-mentioned applications, it is important to understand how patient-specific bone shape and density distribution influence the natural frequencies of bones. We used finite element models to study the effects of bone shape and density distribution on the natural frequencies of the femur in free boundary conditions. A statistical shape and appearance model that describes shape and density distribution independently was created, based on a training set of 27 femora. The natural frequencies were then calculated for different shape modes varied around the mean shape while keeping the mean density distribution, for different appearance modes around the mean density distribution while keeping the mean bone shape, and for the 27 training femora. Single shape or appearance modes could cause up to 15% variations in the natural frequencies with certain modes having the greatest impact. For the actual femora, shape and density distribution changed the natural frequencies by up to 38%. First appearance mode that describes the general cortical bone thickness and trabecular bone density had one of the strongest impacts. The first appearance mode could therefore provide a sensitive measure of general bone health and disease progression. Since shape and density could cause large variations in the calculated natural frequencies, patient-specific FE models are needed for accurate estimation of bone natural frequencies.Journal of Biomechanics 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.08.008 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested as an effective methodology to improve muscle strength and power performance. Several studies link the effects of vibration training to enhanced neuromuscular demand, typically ascribed to involuntary reflex mechanisms. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, limiting the identification of the most appropriate vibration training protocols. This study concerns the realization of a new vibration exercise system for the upper limbs. Amplitude, frequency, and baseline of the vibrating force, which is generated by an electromechanical actuator, can be adjusted independently. A second order model is employed to identify the relation between the generated force and the input voltage driving the actuator. Our results show a high correlation (0.99) between the second order model fit and the measured data, ensuring accurate control on the supplied force. The level of neuromuscular demand imposed by the system on the targeted muscles can be estimated by electromyography (EMG). However, EMG measurements during VE can be severely affected by motion artifacts. An adaptive least mean square algorithm is proposed to remove motion artifacts from the measured EMG data. Preliminary validation with 7 volunteers showed excellent motion artifact removal, enabling reliable evaluation of the neuromuscular activation.IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering: a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 09/2012; 21(2). DOI:10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2219555 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested as an effective option to improve muscle strength and power performance. Several studies link the effects of vibration training to enhanced neuromuscular stimulation and typically to involuntary reflex mechanisms. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and information for the most appropriate vibration training protocols is limited. This study proposes to realize a new vibration exercise system for the biceps brachii. Amplitude, frequency, and baseline of the vibrating load, which is generated by an electromechanical actuator, can be adjusted dynamically by a feedback control loop. A second-order model is employed to identify the relation between the mechanical load and the input voltage driving the actuator. An adaptive normalized least mean square algorithm is proposed to remove the motion artifacts from the measured electromyography (EMG) data. Our results show a high correlation (0.99) between the second-order model fit and the measured data, permitting accurate control on the supplied load for vibrations up to 80 Hz. Furthermore, preliminary validation with 4 volunteers showed an excellent performance in the motion artifact removal, enabling reliable evaluation of the neuromuscular activation.Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 08/2012; 2012:2760-3. DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346536