Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated polar soils.
ABSTRACT Bioremediation is increasingly viewed as an appropriate remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated polar soils. As for all soils, the successful application of bioremediation depends on appropriate biodegradative microbes and environmental conditions in situ. Laboratory studies have confirmed that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria typically assigned to the genera Rhodococcus, Sphingomonas or Pseudomonas are present in contaminated polar soils. However, as indicated by the persistence of spilled hydrocarbons, environmental conditions in situ are suboptimal for biodegradation in polar soils. Therefore, it is likely that ex situ bioremediation will be the method of choice for ameliorating and controlling the factors limiting microbial activity, i.e. low and fluctuating soil temperatures, low levels of nutrients, and possible alkalinity and low moisture. Care must be taken when adding nutrients to the coarse-textured, low-moisture soils prevalent in continental Antarctica and the high Arctic because excess levels can inhibit hydrocarbon biodegradation by decreasing soil water potentials. Bioremediation experiments conducted on site in the Arctic indicate that land farming and biopiles may be useful approaches for bioremediation of polar soils.
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ABSTRACT: Intermicrobial competition is known to occur in many natural environments, and can result from direct conflict between organisms, or from differential rates of growth, colonization, and/or nutrient acquisition. It has been difficult to extensively examine intermicrobial competition in situ, but these interactions may play an important role in the regulation of the many biogeochemical processes that are tied to microbial communities in polar soils. A greater understanding of how competition influences productivity will improve projections of gas and nutrient flux as the poles warm, may provide biotechnological opportunities for increasing the degradation of contaminants in polar soil, and will help to predict changes in communities of higher organisms, such as plants.Biology 01/2013; 2(2):533-54.
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ABSTRACT: The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96552. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estuaries are sinks for various anthropogenic contaminants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons, giving rise to significant environmental concern. The demand for organisms and processes capable of degrading pollutants in a clean, effective, and less expensive process is of great importance. Phytoremedition approaches involving plant/bacteria interactions have been explored as an alternative, and halophyte vegetation has potential for use in phytoremedition of hydrocarbon contamination. Studies with plant species potentially suitable for microbe-assisted phytoremediation are widely represented in scientific literature. However, the in-depth understanding of the biological processes associated with the re-introduction of indigenous bacteria and plants and their performance in the degradation of hydrocarbons is still the limiting step for the application of these bioremediation solutions in a field context. The intent of the present review is to summarize the sources and effects of hydrocarbon contamination in estuarine environments, the strategies currently available for bioremediation (potential and limitations), and the perspectives of the use of halophyte plants in microbe-assisted phytoremediation approaches.Microbial Ecology 06/2014; · 3.28 Impact Factor