Dispositional impulsivity in normal and abnormal samples

Department of Psychiatry, Box 1230, One Gustave Levy Place, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, United States.
Journal of Psychiatric Research (Impact Factor: 3.96). 09/2006; 40(5):438-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.01.008
Source: PubMed


Impulsive behaviors, which can include aggression, substance use and suicide, are common and core features of the DSM Axis II Cluster B personality disorders. The construct of dispositional impulsivity is multidimensional and a number of self-report measures have been created to represent features of this trait (e.g., novelty seeking, behavioral disinhibition, nonplanning). Because these questionnaires are rarely administered together in the same sample, little is known about how they are related to one another. The current study was conducted to examine the structure of dimensional impulsive personality traits in a large normative sample (n=351). Analyses revealed that dispositional impulsivity was represented by three moderately correlated latent factors labeled thrill seeking, nonplanning and disinhibited behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses were also used to examine the extent to which the internal structure of these impulsive personality traits was similar in a sample defined as abnormal (i.e., DSM-III-R Cluster B PD diagnoses; n=70). Results revealed that the structure of these traits was consistent across the two samples in a model that constrained factor loadings and structural covariances (NFI=0.89; CFI=95; RMSEA=0.04). In addition, correlational relationships between the impulsivity factor scores and behavioral and sociodemographic factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, substance use) were consistent across the two samples. These results help to establish a common framework for understanding the multidimensional nature of impulsivity. Results from these analyses also lend support to a large body of work that demonstrates that normal and abnormal personality features are related.

1 Follower
13 Reads
  • Source
    • "A number of studies have investigated the structure of the impulsivity trait based on factor analyses from the set of responses to self-report scales. With regard to the taxonometric models, these exploratory factorial studies have already identifi ed three dimensions, labeled non-planning, disinhibition and thrill-seeking (Flory et al., 2006), four impulsivity factors (impulsiveness, deliberation, selfdiscipline and excitement seeking; Whiteside & Lynam, 2001) as well as seven components (prepared/careful, "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: O objetivo principal desse estudo foi investigar as características psicométricas da Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A análise do conteúdo dos itens foi realizada por sete doutorandos. A amostra foi composta por 897 estudantes submetidos a BIS-11 e a medidas de autorrelato sobre a presença de sintomas de Transtorno Mental Comum e TDAH, uso de álcool e tabagismo. A idade média foi de 27,32 (DP=8,69) anos, 56% eram mulheres e 52% tinham educação superior incompleta. Análises de conteúdo e fatorial indicaram que a impulsividade é representada mais adequadamente por dois fatores denominados dificuldade de planejamento e controle inibitório. Concordância teste-reteste indicou que os escores se mantiveram estáveis após sete meses. Adicionalmente, os escores da BIS-11 discriminaram os indivíduos em termos de tabagismo e sintomas psicopatológicos, indicando evidências de validade de critério. A discussão dos resultados foi baseada no modelo neuropsicológico dos componentes quentes e frios das funções executivas.
    Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica 01/2015; 28(1):96-105. DOI:10.1590/1678-7153.201528111 · 0.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "NS was revised (r-NS) to consist of Impulsiveness vs. Reflection (NS2), Extravagance vs. Reserve (NS3) and Disorderliness vs. Regimentation (NS4), excluding Exploratory Excitability vs. Stoic Rigidity (NS1). Further, Flory et al. (2006), using factor analysis in a large normative sample of middle-aged adults, found Impulsiveness vs. Reflection (NS2) and Extravagance vs. Reserve (NS3) to have high loadings on a “non-planning impulsivity” factor, together with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), whereas Exploratory Excitability vs. Stoic Rigidity (NS1) loaded on a distinct “Openness to Experience” factor, and Disorderliness vs. Regimentation (NS4) failed to load strongly on any single factor. Hence, in the current study, we focused on those r-NS facets most strongly linked to trait disinhibition: Impulsiveness (vs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including disordered gambling, can occur in a significant number of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving dopaminergic therapy. The neurobiology underlying susceptibility to such problems is unclear, but risk likely results from an interaction between dopaminergic medication and a pre-existing trait vulnerability. Impulse control and addictive disorders form part of a broader psychopathological spectrum of disorders, which share a common underlying genetic vulnerability, referred to as externalizing. The broad externalizing risk factor is a continuously varying trait reflecting vulnerability to various impulse control problems, manifested at the overt level by disinhibitory symptoms and at the personality level by antecedent traits such as impulsivity and novelty/sensation seeking. Trait "disinhibition" is thus a core endophenotype of ICDs, and a key target for neurobiological investigation. The ventral striatal dopamine system has been hypothesized to underlie individual variation in behavioral disinhibition. Here, we examined whether individual differences in ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity predicted individual variation in disinhibitory temperament traits in individuals with PD. Eighteen early-stage male PD patients underwent 6-[F]Fluoro-l-DOPA (FDOPA) positron emission tomography scanning to measure striatal dopamine synthesis capacity, and completed a measure of disinhibited personality. Consistent with our predictions, we found that levels of ventral, but not dorsal, striatal dopamine synthesis capacity predicted disinhibited personality, particularly a propensity for financial extravagance. Our results are consistent with recent preclinical models of vulnerability to behavioral disinhibition and addiction proneness, and provide novel insights into the neurobiology of potential vulnerability to impulse control problems in PD and other disorders.
    Frontiers in Psychology 02/2013; 4:90. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00090 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Findings of the current study also suggest that agreeableness is associated with better objective IADL performance. Agreeableness is thought to reflect the ability to inhibit disagreeable tendencies, particularly emotional expressions that may affect relationship quality (Tobin, Graziano, Vanman, & Tassinary, 2000), and is negatively associated with the behavioral disinhibition factor of impulsivity (Flory et al., 2006). Thus, to the extent that agreeableness reflects an ability to inhibit negative tendencies in the service of interpersonal harmony, a certain degree of cognitive control may underlie this personality trait, thereby influencing objective performance on IADLs. "

Show more

Similar Publications