Dispositional impulsivity in normal and abnormal samples

Department of Psychiatry, Box 1230, One Gustave Levy Place, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, United States.
Journal of Psychiatric Research (Impact Factor: 4.09). 09/2006; 40(5):438-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.01.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Impulsive behaviors, which can include aggression, substance use and suicide, are common and core features of the DSM Axis II Cluster B personality disorders. The construct of dispositional impulsivity is multidimensional and a number of self-report measures have been created to represent features of this trait (e.g., novelty seeking, behavioral disinhibition, nonplanning). Because these questionnaires are rarely administered together in the same sample, little is known about how they are related to one another. The current study was conducted to examine the structure of dimensional impulsive personality traits in a large normative sample (n=351). Analyses revealed that dispositional impulsivity was represented by three moderately correlated latent factors labeled thrill seeking, nonplanning and disinhibited behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses were also used to examine the extent to which the internal structure of these impulsive personality traits was similar in a sample defined as abnormal (i.e., DSM-III-R Cluster B PD diagnoses; n=70). Results revealed that the structure of these traits was consistent across the two samples in a model that constrained factor loadings and structural covariances (NFI=0.89; CFI=95; RMSEA=0.04). In addition, correlational relationships between the impulsivity factor scores and behavioral and sociodemographic factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, substance use) were consistent across the two samples. These results help to establish a common framework for understanding the multidimensional nature of impulsivity. Results from these analyses also lend support to a large body of work that demonstrates that normal and abnormal personality features are related.

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    • "A number of studies have investigated the structure of the impulsivity trait based on factor analyses from the set of responses to self-report scales. With regard to the taxonometric models, these exploratory factorial studies have already identifi ed three dimensions, labeled non-planning, disinhibition and thrill-seeking (Flory et al., 2006), four impulsivity factors (impulsiveness, deliberation, selfdiscipline and excitement seeking; Whiteside & Lynam, 2001) as well as seven components (prepared/careful, "
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    ABSTRACT: O objetivo principal desse estudo foi investigar as características psicométricas da Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A análise do conteúdo dos itens foi realizada por sete doutorandos. A amostra foi composta por 897 estudantes submetidos a BIS-11 e a medidas de autorrelato sobre a presença de sintomas de Transtorno Mental Comum e TDAH, uso de álcool e tabagismo. A idade média foi de 27,32 (DP=8,69) anos, 56% eram mulheres e 52% tinham educação superior incompleta. Análises de conteúdo e fatorial indicaram que a impulsividade é representada mais adequadamente por dois fatores denominados dificuldade de planejamento e controle inibitório. Concordância teste-reteste indicou que os escores se mantiveram estáveis após sete meses. Adicionalmente, os escores da BIS-11 discriminaram os indivíduos em termos de tabagismo e sintomas psicopatológicos, indicando evidências de validade de critério. A discussão dos resultados foi baseada no modelo neuropsicológico dos componentes quentes e frios das funções executivas.
    Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica 01/2015; 28(1):96-105. DOI:10.1590/1678-7153.201528111 · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Findings of the current study also suggest that agreeableness is associated with better objective IADL performance. Agreeableness is thought to reflect the ability to inhibit disagreeable tendencies, particularly emotional expressions that may affect relationship quality (Tobin, Graziano, Vanman, & Tassinary, 2000), and is negatively associated with the behavioral disinhibition factor of impulsivity (Flory et al., 2006). Thus, to the extent that agreeableness reflects an ability to inhibit negative tendencies in the service of interpersonal harmony, a certain degree of cognitive control may underlie this personality trait, thereby influencing objective performance on IADLs. "
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    • "abuse/dependence, and borderline and antisocial personality disorder. Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, and different questionnaires have been developed to assess different aspects of this trait (see Flory et al., 2006). Most questionnaires focus on dysfunctional impulsivity, which is related to ineffective information processing and reflects a failure to inhibit inappropriate responses, whereas functional impulsivity is adaptive in being related to a rapid style of information processing (Brunas-Wagstaff, Bergquist, & Wagstaff, 1994; Dickman, 1990). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study addresses the relationship between trait impulsivity and inhibitory control, two features known to be impaired in a number of psychiatric conditions. While impulsivity is often measured using psychometric self-report questionnaires, the inhibition of inappropriate, impulsive motor responses is typically measured using experimental laboratory tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether psychometrically assessed impulsivity and experimentally operationalized inhibitory performance are related to each other. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these two traits in a large sample using correlative and latent variable analysis. A total of 504 healthy individuals completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and a battery of four prepotent response inhibition paradigms: the antisaccade, Stroop, stop-signal, and go/no-go tasks. We found significant associations of BIS impulsivity with commission errors on the go/no-go task and directional errors on the antisaccade task, over and above effects of age, gender, and intelligence. Latent variable analysis (a) supported the idea that all four inhibitory measures load on the same underlying construct termed "prepotent response inhibition" and (b) revealed that 12% of variance of the prepotent response inhibition construct could be explained by BIS impulsivity. Overall, the magnitude of associations observed was small, indicating that while a portion of variance in prepotent response inhibition can be explained by psychometric trait impulsivity, the majority of variance remains unexplained. Thus, these findings suggest that prepotent response inhibition paradigms can account for psychometric trait impulsivity only to a limited extent. Implications for studies of patient populations with symptoms of impulsivity are discussed.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 08/2012; 34(10). DOI:10.1080/13803395.2012.706261 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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