Article

Complement C3c and related protein biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

Power3 Medical Products, Inc., The Woodlands, TX, USA.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (Impact Factor: 2.28). 05/2006; 342(4):1034-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.02.051
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have used quantitative 2D gel electrophoresis to analyze serum proteins from 422 patients with neurodegenerative diseases and normal individuals in an unbiased approach to identify biomarkers. Differences in abnormal serum levels were found between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and related disorders for 34 protein biomarker spots, nine of which were related to the complement system. Of these nine, four spots originated from the Complement C3b-alpha-chain (C3c(1), C3c(2a), C3c(2b), and C3dg). The C3c spots (C3c(1), C3c(2a), and C3c(2b)) had the same amino acid sequence and glycosylation, though only C3c(1) was phosphorylated. In addition, Complement Factors H, Bb, and Pre-Serum amyloid protein displayed different serum concentrations in ALS, PD, and normal sera, whereas Complement C4b gamma-chain and Complement Factor I did not. The differential expression of the complement proteins provides potentially useful biomarkers as well as evidence for the involvement of inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of ALS and PD.

0 Followers
 · 
136 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The immune response after brain injury is highly complex and involves both local and systemic events at the cellular and molecular level. It is associated to a dramatic over-activation of enzyme systems, the expression of proinflammatory genes and the activation/recruitment of immune cells. The complement system represents a powerful component of the innate immunity and is highly involved in the inflammatory response. Complement components are synthesized predominantly by the liver and circulate in the bloodstream primed for activation. Moreover, brain cells can produce complement proteins and receptors. After acute brain injury, the rapid and uncontrolled activation of the complement leads to massive release of inflammatory anaphylatoxins, recruitment of cells to the injury site, phagocytosis and induction of blood brain barrier (BBB) damage. Brain endothelial cells are particularly susceptible to complement-mediated effects, since they are exposed to both circulating and locally synthesized complement proteins. Conversely, during neurodegenerative disorders, complement factors play distinct roles depending on the stage and degree of neuropathology. In addition to the deleterious role of the complement, increasing evidence suggest that it may also play a role in normal nervous system development (wiring the brain) and adulthood (either maintaining brain homeostasis or supporting regeneration after brain injury). This article represents a compendium of the current knowledge on the complement role in the brain, prompting a novel view that complement activation can result in either protective or detrimental effects in brain conditions that depend exquisitely on the nature, the timing and the degree of the stimuli that induce its activation. A deeper understanding of the acute, subacute and chronic consequences of complement activation is needed and may lead to new therapeutic strategies, including the ability of targeting selective step in the complement cascade.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:380. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00380 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The immune system is inextricably linked with many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neuromuscular disorder affecting motor cell function with an average survival of 3 years from symptoms onset. In ALS there is a dynamic interplay between the resident innate immune cells, i.e. microglia and astrocytes, which may become progressively harmful to motor neurons. While innate and adaptive immune responses are associated with progressive neurodegeneration, in the early stages of ALS immune activation pathways are primarily considered to be beneficial promoting neuronal repair of the damaged tissues, though a harmful effect of T cells at this stage of disease has also been observed. In addition, while autoantibodies against neuronal antigens are present in ALS, it is unclear whether these arise as a primary or secondary event to neuronal damage, and whether the autoantibodies are indeed pathogenic. Understanding how the immune system contributes to the fate of motor cells in ALS may shed light on the triggers of disease as well as on the mechanisms contributing to the propagation of the pathology. Immune markers may also act as biomarkers while pathways involved in immune action may be targets of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the modalities by which the immune system senses the core pathological process in motor neuron disorders, focussing on tissue-specific immune responses in the neuromuscular junction and in the neuroaxis observed in affected individuals and in animal models of ALS. We elaborate on existing data on the immunological fingerprint of ALS that could be used to identify clues on the disease origin and patterns of progression.
    International Immunology 10/2014; DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxu099 · 3.18 Impact Factor
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
58 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014