Mood changes correlate to changes in brain serotonin precursor trapping in women with premenstrual dysphoria.
ABSTRACT The cardinal mood symptoms of premenstrual dysphoria can be effectively treated by serotonin-augmenting drugs. The aim of the study was to test the serotonin hypothesis of this disorder, i.e. of an association between premenstrual decline in brain serotonin function and concomitant worsening of self-rated cardinal mood symptoms. Positron emission tomography was used to assess changes in brain trapping of 11C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophan, the immediate precursor of serotonin, in the follicular and premenstrual phases of the menstrual cycle in eight women with premenstrual dysphoria. Changes in mood and physical symptoms were assessed from daily visual analog scale ratings. Worsening of cardinal mood symptoms showed significant inverse associations with changes in brain serotonin precursor trapping; for the symptom "irritable", r(s)=-0.83, and for "depressed mood" r(s)=-0.81. Positive mood variables showed positive associations, whereas physical symptoms generally displayed weak or no associations. The data indicate strong inverse associations between worsening of cardinal symptoms of premenstrual dysphoria and brain serotonin precursor (11C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophan) trapping. The results may in part support a role for serotonin in premenstrual dysphoria and may provide a clue to the effectiveness of serotonin-augmenting drugs in this disorder but should, due to small sample size and methodological shortcomings, be considered preliminary.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) has generally not been associated with impulsive behavior. However, some studies suggest that women with PMDD have higher impulsivity scores than healthy controls and that brain activity during response inhibition may vary across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, our aim was to unravel potentially important cognitive aspects of PMDD by investigating brain activity during response inhibition in women with PMDD and healthy controls in relation to menstrual cycle phase. METHODS: Fourteen PMDD patients and 13 healthy controls performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Women with PMDD displayed decreased activity during both menstrual cycle phases compared to healthy controls in several task-related parietal areas. A significant group by phase interactions was found in the left insula, driven by enhanced activity among healthy controls in the follicular phase and by enhanced insula activity during the luteal phase among PMDD patients. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of the present study are the relatively limited sample size, the relatively small number of NoGo trials and the lack of a baseline contrast for the NoGo trials. CONCLUSIONS: During response inhibition women with PMDD have reduced activity in areas associated with attention and motor function which is unrelated to menstrual cycle phase. Insular cortex activity, involved in both affective and cognitive processing, was significantly activated during the luteal phase among PMDD women. These findings are relevant for the understanding of how ovarian steroids influence mood symptoms in women.Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2012; 142(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2012.04.006 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a mood disorder disrupting social and/or occupational life of affected women. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder etiology is unknown, although a pivotal role is played by the serotoninergic system. Indeed, one of the most effective treatments is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Several studies have proposed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-like role for myo-inositol, likely due to the fact that myo-inositol is the second messenger of serotonin. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of myo-inositol in the treatment of PMDD. We used a two-phase clinical trial approach (phase I: placebo washout; phase II: comparisons between treatment and placebo) and treated PMMD patients with two different myo-inositol formulations: powder or soft gel capsules. We decided to test these two formulations because according to the manufacturer, 0.6 g of myo-inositol in soft gel capsule has a pharmacokinetic equivalent to 2 g of myo-inositol in powder. Our results showed a significant improvement of three different scales: a reduction in the Daily Symptoms Records scale and an improvement of the Hamilton Depression Rating and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness scales. Results were similar for both formulations. In the present study, by using a new pharmaceutical formulation, we were able to clearly prove the efficacy of myo-inositol in PMDD.Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 10/2011; 26(7):526-30. DOI:10.1002/hup.1241 · 1.85 Impact Factor