The impact of generalized anxiety disorder and stressful life events on risk for major depressive episodes
ABSTRACT Both generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and stressful life events (SLEs) are established risk factors for major depressive disorder, but no studies exist that examine the interrelationship of their impact on depressive onsets. In this study, we sought to analyze the joint effects of prior history of GAD and recent SLEs on risk for major depressive episodes, comparing these in men and women.
In a population-based sample of 8068 adult twins, Cox proportional hazard models were used to predict onsets of major depression from reported prior GAD and last-year SLEs rated on long-term contextual threat.
For all levels of threat, prior GAD increases risk for depression, with a monotonic relationship between threat level and risk. While females without prior GAD consistently show higher depressive risk than males, this is no longer the case in subjects with prior GAD who have experienced SLEs. Rather, males appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of both prior GAD and SLEs.
The effects of prior GAD and SLEs jointly increase the risk of depression in both sexes, but disproportionately so in males.
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ABSTRACT: To compare causes of death and mortality among subjects with and without mood disorder in the Lundby Cohort and to analyse additional mental disorders as risk factors for mortality in subjects with mood disorders. The Lundby study is a longitudinal study that investigated mental health in an unselected population. The study commenced in 1947; the population was further investigated in 1957, 1972, and 1997. Experienced psychiatrists performed semi-structured diagnostic interviews, and best estimate consensus diagnoses of mental disorders were assessed at each field investigation. Subjects with mood disorder (n=508, 195 males, 313 females) were identified until 1997. Causes and dates of death between 1947 and 2011 were obtained from the Swedish cause of death register and were compared between subjects diagnosed with mood disorder and other participants. Mortality was compared between those with mood disorders and the remaining cohort with Cox regression analyses. Other mental disorders were considered as risk factors for death for subjects with mood disorders. The hazard ratio for mortality in mood disorders was HR=1.18. However, the mortality was elevated only for males, HR=1.5. Comorbid anxiety disorders, organic disorders, dementia and psychotic disorders were significant risk factors for death. A total of 6.3% of the participants with mood disorder and 1.2% of the remaining participants committed suicide. As expected, the suicide rate was higher among participants with mood disorders. Only males with mood disorders had elevated mortality. The impact on mortality from other mental disorders seems to vary between the genders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2015; 178. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.02.028 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the strength and relative importance of multiple predictors of depression in youth aged 16 to 20 years. Data were drawn from Statistics Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (Statistics Canada 2007a, b). Hierarchical regressions were conducted separately by child gender (N = 796 boys; N = 919 girls) for two overlapping samples: mixed parent-child dyads (e.g., biological mothers, fathers and other caregivers; N = 1,715) and a subsample containing only biological mother-child dyads (N = 1,425). Parent-reported data were used from Cycle 1 when the children were aged 4 to 8 years. Parent and child-reported data were used from Cycle 4 when children were aged 10 to 14 years. The outcome measure of depressive symptoms was taken from Cycle 7 when the youth were aged 16 to 20 years. Adolescents reported more depression symptoms than young adults and girls reported more than boys. For boys, higher anxiety/depression scores at ages 4 to 8 years and 10 to 14 years, along with lower self-esteem at 10 to 14 years, predicted higher depression scores. Girls' depression was predicted by loss of a parent by ages 4 to 8 years and higher self-reported anxiety/depression and aggression at ages 10 to 14 years. Among biological mother-child dyads, maternal depression reported by mother when child was aged 4 to 8 years and 10 to 14 years significantly predicted depression for girls. At 10 to 14 years, child-reported lower parental monitoring (girls only) and greater parental rejection (boys and girls) predicted depression at ages 16 to 20 years.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 09/2014; 43(4). DOI:10.1007/s10802-014-9940-3 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Comorbidities are common in epilepsy, and their role in quality of life (QOL) is receiving increasing scrutiny. Considerable attention has been focused on the role of depression, the most common comorbidity, with rather less attention paid to its frequent concomitant, anxiety, and other conditions known to be at increased prevalence among people with epilepsy (PWE) when compared to the general population. In this paper, we report findings from a UK-based survey in which we examined self-reporting of two common comorbidities, anxiety and sleep problems, factors associated with them, and their role in QOL in people with and without epilepsy.Epilepsy & Behavior 01/2015; 43. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.09.071 · 2.06 Impact Factor