A prospective, double-blind phase II study evaluating the safety and efficacy of a topical histamine gel for the prophylaxis of oral mucositis in patients post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Department of Oral Medicine, The Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.
Bone Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.54). 05/2006; 37(8):757-62. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705331
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a topical gel containing histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) versus a placebo gel in preventing oral mucositis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. A total of 45 patients post-HSCT were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients were evaluated twice weekly for oral mucositis (OMAS, NCI score), oral pain (VAS), oral function and salivary flow rate. Compliance was assessed using a patient diary. Oral mucositis developed in 85% of the HDC group and 63% of the placebo group. The mean maximal intensity for NCI score was 1.45+/-1 in the HDC group and 1.21+/-1.27 in the placebo group (P=0.37). The mean duration of oral mucositis was 4.7+/-3.6 and 2.33+/-2.23 days in the HDC and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.06). The same trends were measured with OMAS. Visual analogue scale for oral pain and oral function was not significantly different between the two groups. Histamine dihydrochloride was found to be safe. In the search for topical agents for the prevention of mucositis, we found that HDC neither improves nor worsens oral mucositis in HSCT patients. The balance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of HDC should be investigated further in order to acquire a clinically effective topical medication based on its anti-inflammatory properties.

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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are submitted to a conditioning regimen of high-dose chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, which usually results in oral ulcerations and mucosal barrier breakdown. Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and debilitating toxicity side effect of autologous and allogeneic HSCT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the severity of OM and inflammatory mediator (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β, metalloproteinases, and growth factors) levels in saliva and blood of HSCT patients. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to two groups: control (n = 15) and laser (n = 15). LLLT was applied from the first day of the conditioning regimen until day 7 post-HSCT (D + 7). Saliva and blood were collected from patients on admission (AD), D-1, D + 3, D + 7, and on marrow engraftment day (ME). Clinical results showed less severe OM in the laser group (p < 0.05). The LLLT group showed increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels in saliva on D + 7 (p = 0.04). Significant differences were also observed for IL-10 on D + 7 and on ME in blood plasma, when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). No significant differences were seen in saliva or blood for the other inflammatory mediators investigated. LLLT was clinically effective in reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced OM in HSCT patients, and its mechanism of action does not seem to be completely linked to the modulation of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors or matrix metalloproteinases.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of this project was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients. Materials and methods A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology. The body of evidence for use of each intervention, in each cancer treatment setting, was assigned an evidence level. Based on the evidence level, one of the following three guideline determinations was possible: recommendation, suggestion, and no guideline possible. Results Forty-one papers were reviewed. There was sufficient evidence to recommend the use of benzydamine mouthwash for the prevention of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving moderate-dose radiation therapy (up to 50 Gy), without concomitant chemotherapy. A new suggestion was developed against the use of misoprostol mouthwash for the prevention of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. Positive results were reported for some other anti-inflammatory agents. However, no guidelines were able to be developed for any other agents due to insufficient and/or conflicting evidence. Conclusions The use of anti-inflammatory agents continues to be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Additional well-designed studies are needed to examine the use of this class of agents for oral mucositis.
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