N-acetylcysteine is a highly available precursor for cysteine in the neonatal piglet receiving parenteral nutrition

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.14). 03/2006; 30(2):133-42. DOI: 10.1177/0148607106030002133
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cysteine (CYS) is accepted as an indispensable amino acid for infants receiving parenteral nutrition (PN), and CYS is unstable in solution. Thus, developing a method to supply CYS in PN for neonates is needed. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is stable in solution and safe for use in humans; therefore, NAC may be a means of supplying parenteral CYS.
We determined the bioavailability of NAC in intravenously (IV)-fed piglets randomized to 1 of 4 diet treatments, each supplying 0.3 g/kg/d methionine and either 0.2 g/kg/d CYS (CON), 0 NAC (zeroNAC), 0.13 NAC (lowNAC), or 0.27 g/kg/d NAC (highNAC). Piglets (2 days old; 1.8 kg, n = 20) were surgically implanted with femoral and jugular catheters. On day 3 postsurgery, test diets were initiated and continued until day 8. Piglets were weighed daily. Blood was sampled 6 hours before test diet initiation and at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 hours. Urine was collected on ice in 24-hour sample periods.
Total mean weight gain was not different between groups; however, average daily gain in the zeroNAC and lowNAC groups declined significantly (p < .05) over the 5-day treatment period. Nitrogen retention was similar between the CON and highNAC groups, both were higher than the lowNAC group, and the zeroNAC treatment produced the lowest nitrogen retention. NAC percent retention was not different between lowNAC and highNAC and was 85.4% and 82.6%, respectively. Plasma NAC was higher in highNAC than lowNAC (p < .05).
These data demonstrate that NAC is available as a precursor for CYS to support growth and protein (nitrogen) accretion in piglets administered a parenteral solution.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) functions as a protein repair enzyme by catalyzing the stereospecific reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide to methionine. We previously identified that MsrA deficiency inhibits normal cell growth via activation of the p53-p21 pathway. In this study, we report a critical role of MsrA in expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a highly inducible enzyme that has an anti-proliferative effect mediated by up-regulation of p21. Down-regulation of MsrA induced HO-1 expression in mammalian cells with increased p21 levels, but MsrA overexpression did not affect HO-1 expression. MsrA depletion activated Nrf2 by increasing its expression and nuclear translocation. Nrf2 activation was associated with increased reactive oxygen species production. MsrA overexpression in MsrA-depleted cells led to the reduction of increased HO-1 expression, and suppressed nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Taken together, the data suggest that MsrA attenuates HO-1 induction by inhibiting Nrf2 activation.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2012; 528(2):134-140. DOI:10.1016/ · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Glutathione and Sulfur Amino Acids in Human Health and Disease, 11/2008: pages 289 - 316; , ISBN: 9780470475973
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Butyrate has been shown to stimulate intestinal adaptation when added to parenteral nutrition (PN) following small bowel resection but is not available in current PN formulations. The authors hypothesized that pre- and probiotic administration may be a clinically feasible method to administer butyrate and stimulate intestinal adaptation. Neonatal piglets (48 hours old, n = 87) underwent placement of a jugular catheter and an 80% jejunoileal resection and were randomized to one of the following treatment groups: control (20% standard enteral nutrition/80% standard PN), control plus prebiotic (10 g/L short-chain fructooligosaccharides [scFOS]), control plus probiotic (1 × 10(9) CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG [LGG]), or control plus synbiotic (scFOS + LGG). Animals received infusions for 24 hours, 3 days, or 7 days, and markers of intestinal adaptation were assessed. Prebiotic treatment increased ileal mucosa weight compared with all other treatments (P = .017) and ileal protein compared with control (P = .049), regardless of day. Ileal villus length increased in the prebiotic and synbiotic group (P = .011), regardless of day, specifically due to an increase in epithelial proliferation (P = .003). In the 7-day prebiotic group, peptide transport was upregulated in the jejunum (P = .026), whereas glutamine transport was increased in both the jejunum and colon (P = .001 and .003, respectively). Prebiotic and/or synbiotic supplementation resulted in enhanced structure and function throughout the residual intestine. Identification of a synergistic prebiotic and probiotic combination may enhance the promising results obtained with prebiotic treatment alone.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 04/2012; 36(5):524-37. DOI:10.1177/0148607112444131 · 3.14 Impact Factor