Association of Depression and Anxiety Disorders With Weight Change in a Prospective Community-Based Study of Children Followed Up Into Adulthood
ABSTRACT To investigate childhood to adulthood weight change associated with anxiety and depression.
The Children in the Community Study. A prospective longitudinal investigation.
Albany and Saratoga Counties, New York.
Eight hundred twenty individuals (403 females and 417 males) assessed at 4 time points: in 1983 when they were 9 to 18 years old (n = 776), in 1985 to 1986 when they were 11 to 22 years old (n = 775), in 1991 to 1994 when they were 17 to 28 years old (n = 776), and in 2001 to 2003 when they were 28 to 40 years old (n = 661).
Anxiety disorders and depression assessed by structured diagnostic interview.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index z score (BMIz), a measure of weight status; and association of anxiety and depression with BMIz level and annual change.
In females, anxiety disorders were associated with higher weight status, a BMIz of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.25) units higher compared with females without anxiety disorders. Female depression was associated with a gain in BMIz of 0.09 units/y (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.15 units/y), modified by the age when depression was first observed, such that early depression onset was associated with a higher subsequent BMIz than depression onset at older ages. In males, childhood depression was associated with a lower BMIz (-0.46; 95% confidence interval, -0.93 to 0.02 units lower at the age of 9 years), but BMIz trajectories for males with or without depression converged in adulthood; male anxiety disorders were not substantively associated with weight status.
Anxiety disorders and depression were associated with a higher BMIz in females, whereas these disorders in males were not associated with a higher BMIz. These results, if causal and confirmed in other prospective studies, support treating female anxiety and depression as part of comprehensive obesity prevention efforts.
Journal of Pediatric Psychology 01/2015; · 2.91 Impact Factor
- "Early difficulties with weight and internalizing symptoms pose significant risk for later adulthood problems (e.g., Anderson et al., 2006). Prior research on children has documented longitudinal links between "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "ould in - crease the risk of depression . Additionally , we found strong evidence for a reverse association whereby de - pression triggered weight reduction and underweight in males but not in females . Consistent with our findings , others have reported that males with child - hood onset of depression had lower BMI than males without depression ( Anderson et al . 2006 ) . Our results showing that depressed males , but not depressed females , are likely to become underweight suggests that symptoms of depression are expressed differently in males and females . Although reciprocal associations between underweight and depression were not explained by SEP , health factors relating to both under - weight a"
ABSTRACT: Background: An unhealthy body mass index (BMI) has been associated with depression but the direction of association is uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the co-morbidity and direction of association between BMI and depressive symptoms at several ages, from childhood to mid-adulthood. Method: The data were from 18,558 individuals born in 1 week in March 1958, in England, Scotland and Wales, with follow-up at ages 7, 11, 16, 23, 33, 42, 45 and 50 years. Depression (scores>or=90th percentile) was identified from child/adolescent (teacher questionnaires) and adult (self-complete questionnaires and clinical interview) measures. BMI (kg/m2) measured in child/adolescence and adulthood was classified as underweight, normal, overweight or obese. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, obesity and underweight (not overweight) from 11 to 45 years were associated respectively with 1.3-2.1 and 1.5-2.3 times the risk of depression compared with normal weight. Using the time-lagged generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach, we tested (a) whether underweight or obesity at prior ages (7 to 45 years) predicted subsequent risk of depression (11 to 50 years), adjusting for baseline depression; and (b) whether depression at prior ages (7 to 42 years) predicted subsequent risk of underweight or obesity (11 to 45 years), adjusting for baseline BMI. In longitudinal analyses, underweight predicted subsequent depression in both sexes [odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.40] and depression predicted subsequent underweight in males only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.23). Obesity predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in females only (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.14-1.56), but depression did not predict obesity. Conclusions: Clinicians should consider screening routinely for depression patients with unhealthy BMI, namely underweight and obesity, and vice versa.Psychological Medicine 09/2014; 44(12):2641-2652. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714000142 · 5.94 Impact Factor
- "While pre-and postnatal suboptimal growth has convincingly been demonstrated to be associated with physical health risks such as cardiovascular diseases (Barker 2004; Barker et al. 2005, 2009; Roseboom et al. 2006) and type 2 diabetes (Barker 2004; Barker et al. 2009; Lawlor et al. 2006; Roseboom et al. 2006), another line of evidence suggests that suboptimal growth is also related to mental health in general. Hence, suboptimal pre-and postnatal growth may also predict risk of schizophrenia (Abel et al. 2010; Byrne et al. 2007; Cannon et al. 2002; Nilsson et al. 2005; Perrin et al. 2007; Wahlbeck et al. 2001), personality disorders (Fazel et al. 2012; Lahti et al. 2010; Monfils et al. 2009), depression (Anderson et al. 2006; Brown et al. 2000; Raikkonen et al. 2007, 2008), and anxiety (Anderson et al. 2006; Levyshiff et al. 1994; Somhovd et al. 2012) as well as low adult intelligence (Eriksen et al. 2010; Richards et al. 2001, 2002). These findings are in line with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis which suggests that a suboptimal early life environment may permanently alter developing organ structures and the functionality of biological systems and thus result in increased risk for diseases later in life (Barker 2004). "