Blood rheology in PCA and PCEA after total knee arthroplasty
ABSTRACT The rheological events in 2 groups of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were compared--15 patients were given general anesthesia and controlled their postoperative pain applying intravenous patient-controlled analgesia; 17 individuals received combined spinal-epidural anesthesia and controlled their postoperative pain by patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Twenty-four and 48 hours after surgery, the patient-controlled analgesia group showed a significant increase in whole-blood viscosity at the 3 shear rates (P < .01), as well as in relative viscosity at both periods (P < .001 and .01, respectively). Similar findings were observed for red blood cell aggregation (P < .001) and fibrinogen level (P < .001). These values were less expressed in the PCEA group, particularly 48 hours after surgery (P < .01), and the patients showed lower scores on the visual analog pain scale. The better results observed in the PCEA group favor the application of epidural anesthesia and PCEA analgesia in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
- SourceAvailable from: Maja SurbatovicVojnosanitetski pregled. Military-medical and pharmaceutical review 06/2007; 64(5):344-8. DOI:10.2298/VSP0705344S · 0.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory cytokines and the cholinergic system have been implicated in the effects of stressors on mood and memory; however, the underlying mechanisms involved and the potential interrelationships between these pathways remain unclear. To address these questions, we administered neuropsychological tests to 33 generally healthy surgery patients who donated blood samples several days prior to undergoing moderate surgery (baseline), on the morning of the surgery (i.e., a psychological stressor), and one day after surgery. Eighteen control subjects were similarly tested. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the stressor-inducible AChE-R variant were measured. An elevation in anxiety levels, an increase in depressed mood, and a decline in declarative memory were observed on the morning of the surgery, prior to any medical intervention, and were exacerbated one day after surgery. The surgical stressor-induced elevated IL-1 beta levels, which contributed to the increased depressed mood and to the post-surgery increase in AChE-R expression. The latter increase, which was also predicted by pre-surgery AChE-R and post-surgery mood disturbances, was associated with exacerbated memory impairments induced by surgery. In addition, elevated levels of AChE-R on the morning of the surgery predicted the post-surgery elevation in IL-6 levels, which was associated with amelioration of the memory impairments induced by surgery. Taken together, these findings suggest that exposure to a surgical stressor induces a reciprocal up-regulation of AChE-R and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are involved in regulating the surgery-induced mood and memory disturbances.Brain Behavior and Immunity 04/2008; 22(3):388-98. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2007.09.006 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Changes in haemorheology and haemostasis may contribute to bleeding or thrombosis, which is of concern particularly in surgery. Blood loss itself has a major influence on both parameters being closely involved in the clinical outcome. In order to analyze the underlying interrelations, a prospective study with 122 patients (64 females, 58 males) aged between 18 and 83 years (mean: 51.8 years) was conducted. All patients were electively submitted to orthopaedic surgery. Haemorheological parameters included measurements of plasma viscosity, red body cell (RBC) and platelet aggregation index preoperatively, as well as by day 1 and day 7 after surgery. Additionally hematological and haemostaseological parameters including leukocyte and platelet counts, haematocrit and fibrinogen were investigated. Bleeding was defined as high (>500 ml) or low blood loss (≤500 ml) according to the drainage volume. High but not low blood loss was associated with an increase of RBC aggregation by day 1 and 7 after surgery. Plasma viscosity decreased significantly by day 1, returning to normal 7 days after surgery. Platelet count decreased significantly, concurrent with the haematocrit, by day 1 postoperatively, whereas by day 7 a significant increase was observed, being more distinct in high blood loss. Platelet aggregation index did not change under the influence of blood loss. Plasma fibrinogen, clearly corresponding to the extend of blood loss, showed a continuous postoperative increase, which was significantly higher at day 7. Leukocytes increased moderately but significantly in particular in high blood loss. In conclusion, the postoperative decrease of plasma viscosity and of platelet counts, concurrent with the haematocrit, provides evidence of being clearly dependent on blood loss which is regarded as a dilution effect corresponding with the haemorrhagic risk. The increase of RBC aggregation at the early postoperative stage is solely observed in high blood loss and is esteemed as a result of volume therapy. The marked increase of platelet counts and plasma fibrinogen at the late postoperative stage, being more pronounced in high blood loss, might contribute to an elevated prothrombotic risk and is ascribed to an inflammatory response to surgery. In summary, it is concluded, that bleeding tendency corresponding with haemorheologic parameters is enhanced in the early, whereas the prothrombotic risk, well correlating with haemostaseologic parameters, is elevated in the later stage after surgery.Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2010; 46(2-3):183-8. DOI:10.3233/CH-2010-1344 · 2.22 Impact Factor