Article

Increased glucocorticoid receptor-beta expression, but not decreased histone deacetylase 2, in severe asthma

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.25). 04/2006; 117(3):703-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2005.12.1344
Source: PubMed
0 Followers
 · 
131 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is increasingly clear that asthma is not a single disease, but a disorder with vast heterogeneity in pathogenesis, severity, and treatment response. In this review, we discuss the present understanding of different asthma phenotypes and endotypes, and the prospects of personalized medicine for asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: The recognition of diverse biological backgrounds in which asthma, and particularly severe asthma, can manifest has prompted the search for refined phenotypes and endotypes in asthma. Such appreciation of the heterogeneity in asthma is also prompting clinical trials to focus on specific subgroups of asthma, as demonstrated by the clinical trial of lebrikizumab. SUMMARY: Patients with severe asthma have asthma symptoms that are difficult to control, require high dosages of medication, and continue to experience persistent symptoms, asthma exacerbations or airflow obstruction even with aggressive therapy. Although asthma is traditionally viewed as an eosinophilic inflammatory disorder associated with a T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) immune response, recent studies have identified involvement of other effector cells, nonclassical Th2 cytokines and non-Th2 cytokines in severe asthma pathogenesis. Results of several clinical trials of anticytokine antibodies demonstrated the effectiveness of tailoring asthma treatment on the basis of an individual's biology.
    Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 10/2012; DOI:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32835b10ec · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A small proportion of patients with asthma have severe disease characterized by persistent airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic airway inflammation. This review focuses on the clinical efficacy of inhibiting T helper 2-cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses using monoclonal antibodies directed against immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-4/IL-13 in patients with severe refractory asthma. The heterogeneity of airway inflammation in severe asthma has led to the recognition of multiple pathophysiologically distinct severe asthma endotypes. Biomarkers are being developed and evaluated to identify these endotypes and to guide the use of specific biologics in the appropriate patients who remain uncontrolled on high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators or oral corticosteroids. Examples include the efficacy of omalizumab in patients with severe refractory atopic asthma characterized by raised serum total IgE, mepolizumab, reslizumab, and benralizumab in patients with recurrent eosinophilic exacerbations characterized by blood and sputum eosinophilia despite high doses of corticosteroids, and lebrikizumab, pitrakinra, dupilumab, and tralokinumab that target the IL-4/IL-13 signalling pathways in patients with eosinophilic asthma or raised serum periostin. In severe refractory asthma, both an understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms driving airway inflammation and the identification of appropriate biomarkers in individual patients are critical in guiding the use of biologics and monoclonal antibodies that target the specific pathological processes.
    Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 11/2013; DOI:10.1097/MCP.0000000000000007 · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with severe asthma have asthma symptoms which are difficult to control, require high dosages of medication, and continue to experience persistent symptoms, asthma exacerbations or airflow obstruction. Epidemiological and clinical evidences point to the fact that severe asthma is not a single phenotype. Cluster analyses have identified subclasses of severe asthma using parameters such as patient characteristics, and cytokine profiles have also been useful in classifying moderate and severe asthma. The IL-4/IL-13 signalling pathway accounts for the symptoms experienced by a subset of severe asthmatics with allergen-associated symptoms and high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and these patients are generally responsive to anti-IgE treatment. The IL-5/IL-33 signalling pathway is likely to play a key role in the disease pathogenesis of those who are resistant to high doses of inhaled corticosteroid but responsive to systemic corticosteroids and anti-IL5 therapy. The IL-17 signalling pathway is thought to contribute to 'neutrophilic asthma'. Although traditionally viewed as players in the defence mechanism against viral and intracellular bacterial infection, mounting evidence supports a role for Th1 cytokines such as IL-18 and IFN-γ in severe asthma pathogenesis. Furthermore, these cytokine signalling pathways interact to contribute to the spectrum of clinical pathological outcomes in severe asthma. To date, glucocorticoids are the most effective anti-asthma drugs available, yet severe asthma patients are typically resistant to the effects of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction and histone deacetylase activity reduction are likely to contribute to glucocorticoid resistance in severe asthma patients. This review discusses recent development in different cytokine signalling pathways, their interactions and steroid resistance, in the context of severe asthma pathogenesis.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 05/2012; 42(5):625-37. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2012.03983.x · 4.32 Impact Factor