Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated (S,S)-2-(alpha-(2-iodophenoxy)benzyl)morpholine for imaging brain norepinephrine transporter
ABSTRACT Abnormality of the brain norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported in several psychiatric and neuronal disorders. Since NET is an important target for the diagnosis of these diseases, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of brain NET has been eagerly awaited. In this study, we synthesized (S,S)-2-(alpha-(2-iodophenoxy)benzyl)morpholine [(S,S)-IPBM], a derivative of reboxetine iodinated at position 2 of the phenoxy ring, and evaluated its potential as a radiopharmaceutical for imaging brain NET using SPECT.
(S,S)-(123/125)I-IPBM was synthesized in a halogen exchange reaction. The affinity and selectivity of (S,S)-IPBM for NET was measured by assaying the displacement of (3)H-nisoxetine and (S,S)-(125)I-IPBM from the binding site in rat brain membrane, respectively. The biodistribution of (S,S)-(125)I-IPBM was also determined in rats. Furthermore, SPECT studies with (S,S)-(123)I-IPBM were carried out in the common marmoset.
(S,S)-(125)I-IPBM was prepared with high radiochemical yields (65%) and high radiochemical purity (>98%). (S,S)-IPBM showed high affinity and selectivity for NET in the binding assay experiments. In biodistribution experiments, (S,S)-(125)I-IPBM showed rapid uptake in the brain, and the regional cerebral distribution was consistent with the density of NET. The administration of nisoxetine, a selective NET-binding agent, decreased the accumulation of (S,S)-(125)I-IPBM in the brain, but the administration of selective serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter binding agents caused no significant changes in the accumulation. Moreover, (S,S)-(123)I-IPBM allowed brain NET imaging in the common marmoset with SPECT.
These results suggest that (S,S)-(123)I-IPBM is a potential SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging brain NET.
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ABSTRACT: (123)I-NKJ64, a reboxetine analogue, is currently under development as a potential novel single photon emission computed tomography radiotracer for imaging the noradrenaline transporter in brain. This study describes the development of the radiosynthesis of (123)I-NKJ64, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and solutions encountered while developing the final radiolabelling methodology. The synthesis of (123)I-NKJ64 was evaluated using an electrophilic iododestannylation method, where a Boc-protected trimethylstannyl precursor was radioiodinated using peracetic acid as an oxidant and deprotection was investigated using either trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Radioiodination of the Boc-protected trimethylstannyl precursor was achieved with an incorporation yield of 92±6%. Deprotection with 2 M HCl produced (123)I-NKJ64 with the highest radiochemical yield of 98.05±1.63% compared with 83.95±13.24% with TFA. However, the specific activity of the obtained (123)I-NKJ64 was lower when measured after using 2 M HCl (0.15±0.23 Ci/μmol) as the deprotecting agent in comparison to TFA (1.76±0.60 Ci/μmol). Further investigation of the 2 M HCl methodology found a by-product, identified as the deprotected proto-destannylated precursor, which co-eluted with (123)I-NKJ64 during the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. The radiosynthesis of (123)I-NKJ64 was achieved with good isolated radiochemical yield of 68% and a high specific activity of 1.8 Ci/μmol. TFA was found to be the most suitable deprotecting agent, since 2 M HCl generated a by-product that could not be fully separated from (123)I-NKJ64 using the HPLC methodology investigated. This study highlights the importance of HPLC purification and accurate measurement of specific activity while developing new radiosynthesis methodologies.Nuclear Medicine and Biology 05/2011; 38(4):493-500. DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.11.011 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preliminary investigation of the radioiodinated (S,S)-reboxetine analogue, (123) I-INER, in baboons showed this tracer to have promise for imaging the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). More recently, the radioiodinated (R,S)-stereoisomer of (123) I-INER, (123) I-NKJ64, has been synthesized and preliminary evaluation in rats has been reported. This article reports the brain distribution and pharmacokinetic properties of (123) I-NKJ64 in baboons and compares results with (123) I-INER data in the same species. SPECT studies were conducted in two ovariectomized adult female baboons using two different protocols: (1) bolus of (123) I-INER or (123) I-NKJ64; and (2) bolus plus constant infusion of (123) I-NKJ64 with reboxetine (2.0 mg/kg) administration at equilibrium. Following bolus injection, both radiotracers rapidly and avidly entered the baboon brain. The regional brain accumulation of (123) I-NKJ64 did not match the known distribution of NAT in baboon brain, contrasting with previous results obtained in rats. Conversely, the regional distribution of (123) I-INER was consistent with known distribution of NAT in baboon brain. No displacement of (123) I-NKJ64 was observed following administration of reboxetine. This contrasts with previous data obtained for (123) I-INER, where 60% of specific binding was displaced by a lower dose of reboxetine. These data suggest that (123) I-NKJ64 may lack affinity and selectivity for NAT in baboon brain and (123) I-INER is the most promising iodinated reboxetine analogue developed to date for in vivo imaging of NAT in brain using SPECT. This study highlights the importance of species differences during radiotracer development and the stereochemical configuration of analogues of reboxetine in vivo. Synapse 66:923-930, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Synapse 11/2012; 66(11):923-30. DOI:10.1002/syn.21585 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetics of a recently developed radiotracer for imaging of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in baboon brain, 123I-INER, using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition, it also aims to determine NET occupancy by atomoxetine and reboxetine, two selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, using 123I-INER in baboons. Baseline and preblocking studies with a high dose of atomoxetine (0.85 mg/kg) were conducted in three baboons using SPECT with 123I-INER administered as a bolus. Kinetic modeling analysis was investigated for different models, namely invasive and reference tissue models. Bolus plus constant infusion experiments with displacement at equilibrium using six different doses of atomoxetine (0.03–0.85 mg/kg) and four different doses of reboxetine (0.5–3.0 mg/kg) were carried out in several baboons to obtain occupancy measurements as a function of dose for the two NET selective drugs. Results showed that reference tissue models can be used to estimate binding potential values and occupancy measures of 123I-INER in different brain regions. In addition, the apparent volume of distribution was estimated by dividing concentration in tissue by the concentration in blood at 3 hours postinjection. After administration of atomoxetine or reboxetine, a dose-dependent occupancy was observed in brain regions known to contain high densities of NET. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic properties of 123I-INER were successfully described, and obtained results may be used to simplify future data acquisition and image processing. Dose-dependent NET occupancy for two selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors was successfully measured in vivo in baboon brain using SPECT and 123I-INER. Synapse, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Synapse 01/2013; 67(1). DOI:10.1002/syn.21613 · 2.43 Impact Factor