Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated (S,S)-2-(alpha-(2-iodophenoxy)benzyl)morpholine for imaging brain norepinephrine transporter.
ABSTRACT Abnormality of the brain norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported in several psychiatric and neuronal disorders. Since NET is an important target for the diagnosis of these diseases, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of brain NET has been eagerly awaited. In this study, we synthesized (S,S)-2-(alpha-(2-iodophenoxy)benzyl)morpholine [(S,S)-IPBM], a derivative of reboxetine iodinated at position 2 of the phenoxy ring, and evaluated its potential as a radiopharmaceutical for imaging brain NET using SPECT.
(S,S)-(123/125)I-IPBM was synthesized in a halogen exchange reaction. The affinity and selectivity of (S,S)-IPBM for NET was measured by assaying the displacement of (3)H-nisoxetine and (S,S)-(125)I-IPBM from the binding site in rat brain membrane, respectively. The biodistribution of (S,S)-(125)I-IPBM was also determined in rats. Furthermore, SPECT studies with (S,S)-(123)I-IPBM were carried out in the common marmoset.
(S,S)-(125)I-IPBM was prepared with high radiochemical yields (65%) and high radiochemical purity (>98%). (S,S)-IPBM showed high affinity and selectivity for NET in the binding assay experiments. In biodistribution experiments, (S,S)-(125)I-IPBM showed rapid uptake in the brain, and the regional cerebral distribution was consistent with the density of NET. The administration of nisoxetine, a selective NET-binding agent, decreased the accumulation of (S,S)-(125)I-IPBM in the brain, but the administration of selective serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter binding agents caused no significant changes in the accumulation. Moreover, (S,S)-(123)I-IPBM allowed brain NET imaging in the common marmoset with SPECT.
These results suggest that (S,S)-(123)I-IPBM is a potential SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging brain NET.
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ABSTRACT: The development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging continues to grow due to the ability of these techniques to allow the non-invasive in vivo visualisation of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. As well as finding application for the diagnosis of disease, these techniques have also been used in the drug discovery process. Crucial to the growth of these techniques is the continued development of molecular probes that can bind to the target biological receptor with high selectivity. This tutorial review describes the use of PET and SPECT for molecular imaging and highlights key strategies for the development of molecular probes for the imaging of both cancer and neurological diseases.Chemical Society Reviews 01/2011; 40(1):149-62. · 24.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of noradrenergic function has been implicated in a variety of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including depression and Alzheimer's disease. The noradrenaline transporter (NAT) is a major target for antidepressant drugs, including reboxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Therefore, the development of a radiotracer for imaging of the NAT is desirable. In this study, NKJ64, a novel iodinated analog of reboxetine, was radiolabeled and evaluated as a potential single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) radiotracer for imaging the NAT in brain. Biological evaluation of the novel radiotracer, ¹²³/¹²⁵I-NKJ64, was carried out in rats using: in vitro ligand binding assays; in vitro and ex vivo autoradiography; in vivo biodistribution studies and ex vivo pharmacological blocking studies. ¹²⁵I-NKJ64 displayed saturable binding with high affinity for NAT in cortical homogenates (K(D) = 4.82 ± 0.87 nM, mean ± SEM, n = 3). In vitro and ex vivo autoradiography showed the regional distribution of ¹²³I-NKJ64 binding to be consistent with the known density of NAT in brain. Following i.v. injection there was rapid uptake of ¹²³I-NKJ64 in brain, with maximum uptake of 2.93% ± 0.14% (mean ± SEM, n = 3) of the injected dose. The specific to nonspecific ratio (locus coeruleus:caudate putamen) of ¹²³I-NKJ64 uptake measured by ex vivo autoradiography was 2.8 at 30 min post i.v. injection. The prior administration of reboxetine significantly reduced the accumulation of ¹²³I-NKJ64 in the locus coeruleus (>50% blocking). The data indicate that further evaluation of ¹²³I-NKJ64 in nonhuman primates is warranted in order to determine its utility as a SPECT radiotracer for imaging of NAT in brain.Synapse 12/2010; 65(7):658-67. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: (123)I-NKJ64, a reboxetine analogue, is currently under development as a potential novel single photon emission computed tomography radiotracer for imaging the noradrenaline transporter in brain. This study describes the development of the radiosynthesis of (123)I-NKJ64, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and solutions encountered while developing the final radiolabelling methodology. The synthesis of (123)I-NKJ64 was evaluated using an electrophilic iododestannylation method, where a Boc-protected trimethylstannyl precursor was radioiodinated using peracetic acid as an oxidant and deprotection was investigated using either trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Radioiodination of the Boc-protected trimethylstannyl precursor was achieved with an incorporation yield of 92±6%. Deprotection with 2 M HCl produced (123)I-NKJ64 with the highest radiochemical yield of 98.05±1.63% compared with 83.95±13.24% with TFA. However, the specific activity of the obtained (123)I-NKJ64 was lower when measured after using 2 M HCl (0.15±0.23 Ci/μmol) as the deprotecting agent in comparison to TFA (1.76±0.60 Ci/μmol). Further investigation of the 2 M HCl methodology found a by-product, identified as the deprotected proto-destannylated precursor, which co-eluted with (123)I-NKJ64 during the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. The radiosynthesis of (123)I-NKJ64 was achieved with good isolated radiochemical yield of 68% and a high specific activity of 1.8 Ci/μmol. TFA was found to be the most suitable deprotecting agent, since 2 M HCl generated a by-product that could not be fully separated from (123)I-NKJ64 using the HPLC methodology investigated. This study highlights the importance of HPLC purification and accurate measurement of specific activity while developing new radiosynthesis methodologies.Nuclear Medicine and Biology 05/2011; 38(4):493-500. · 2.52 Impact Factor