Postoperative infections in interbody fusion for degenerative spinal disease.
ABSTRACT Scant literature exists on the treatment of infection after interbody fusion. Some authors advocate removal of the interbody grafts. Salvage of the grafts was possible in 92.3% (12 of 13) of the infections in a series of 326 consecutive patients with degenerative spinal diseases treated by three surgeons. Posterior interbody fusion and posterolateral instrumented fusion was performed in 267 patients and anterior interbody fusion was done in 59 patients. Eight infections in the first group (3%) and six in the second group (10.1%) were identified. Mean followup was 18 months (range, 12-38 months). All infections were early, presenting at a mean of 18 days (range, 11-28 months). All but one infection were in the posterior wound and deep. A high number of risk factors were present in these patients. Initial treatment included wound debridement and broad spectrum antibiotics, until culture results indicated the final antibiotic regimen. Infection recurred as osteomyelitis in one patient with multiple previous surgeries and anterior/posterior fusion. This was treated with removal of the posterior instrumentation and the interbody graft and extensive anterior/posterior reconstruction. Clinical outcomes were good in 10 patients, fair in two and poor in one using the Stauffer-Coventry scale. One pseudarthrosis was identified in a patient with anterior interbody fusion at final followup. Salvage of the interbody graft and retaining the instrumentation was safe in most cases in the presented series and did not adversely affect outcome. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic study, level IV (case series). Please see the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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ABSTRACT: Surgical site infection (SSI) following spine surgery is a dreaded complication with significant morbidity and economic burden. SSIs following spine surgery can be superficial, characterized by obvious wound drainage or deep-seated with a healed wound. Staphylococcus aureus remains the principal causal agent. There are certain pre-operative risk factors that increase the risk of SSI, mainly diabetes, smoking, steroids, and peri-operative transfusions. Additionally, intra-operative risk factors include surgical invasiveness, type of fusion, implant use, and traditional instead of minimally invasive approach. A high level of suspicion is crucial to attaining an early definitive diagnosis and initiating appropriate management. The most common presenting symptom is back pain, usually manifesting 2-4 weeks and up to 3 months after a spinal procedure. Scheduling a follow-up visit between weeks 2 and 4 after surgery is therefore necessary for early detection. Inflammatory markers are important diagnostic tools, and comparing pre-operative with post-operative levels should be done when suspecting SSIs following spine surgery. Particularly, serum amyloid A is a novel inflammatory marker that can expedite the diagnosis of SSIs. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the diagnostic modality of choice when suspecting a SSI following spine surgery. While 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is not widely used, it may be useful in challenging cases. Despite their low yield, blood cultures should be collected before initiating antibiotic therapy. Samples from wound drainage should be sent for Gram stain and cultures. When there is a high clinical suspicion of SSI and in the absence of superficial wound drainage, computed tomography-guided aspiration of paraspinal collections is warranted. Unless the patient is hemodynamically compromised, antibiotics should be deferred until proper specimens for culture are secured.03/2014; 1:7. DOI:10.3389/fmed.2014.00007
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ABSTRACT: Surgical site infection (SSI) after spinal surgery is a devastating complication. Various methods of skin closure are used in spinal surgery, but the optimal skin-closure method remains unclear. A recent report recommended against the use of metal staples for skin closure in orthopedic surgery. 2-Octyl-cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, NJ, USA) has been widely applied for wound closure in various surgeries. In this cohort study, we assessed the rate of SSI in spinal surgery using metal staples and 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate for wound closure. This study enrolled 609 consecutive patients undergoing spinal surgery in our hospital. From April 2007 to March 2010 surgical wounds were closed with metal staples (group 1, n = 294). From April 2010 to February 2012 skin closure was performed using 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate (group 2, n = 315). We assessed the rate of SSI using these two different methods of wound closure. Prospective study of the time and cost evaluation of wound closure was performed between two groups. Patients in the 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate group had more risk factors for SSI than those in the metal-staple group. Nonetheless, eight patients in the metal-staple group compared with none in the 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate group acquired SSIs (p < 0.01). The closure of the wound in length of 10 cm with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate could save 28 s and $13.5. This study reveals that in spinal surgery, wound closure using 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate was associated with a lower rate of SSI than wound closure with staples. Moreover, the use of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate has a more time saving effect and cost-effectiveness than the use of staples in wound closure of 10 cm in length.European Spine Journal 02/2014; 23(4). DOI:10.1007/s00586-014-3202-5 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Beside mechanical complications, the majority of adverse events after total disc arthroplasty (TDA) are related to the surgical approach. Septic complications are very uncommon and only one previous case has been published. The objective of this article is to describe the clinical circumstances, treatment, and outcomes of septic complication after TDA at L4–L5, involving an uncommon pathogen (Mycoplasma hominis). Methods A 38-year-old woman underwent a MobiDisc® TDA at L4–L5 level for discogenic pain. One month postoperatively, she complained of acute low back and abdominal pain associated with fever (39 °C). C-reactive protein level was elevated (197 mg/L; normal <5 mg/L) and the white blood cell count was normal (7 × 109/L; normal 4–10 × 109/L). A computerized tomography (CT) showed a left psoas-based retroperitoneal abscess. Treatment consisted of open debridement, drainage and empirical antibiotic therapy. Intraoperative cultures yielded M. hominis after 7 days incubation. Antibiotic therapy was adapted and discontinued after 2 months. The patient had failed to mention earlier that she had been suffering from abnormal vaginal discharge for some time and was using an intrauterine contraceptive device. Results At 1.5-year follow-up, review confirmed healing of the infection with biological normalization without residual collection, radiolucent lines or osteolysis around the prosthesis at radiographs, CT and MRI. Conclusions Mycoplasma hominis can be involved as an extragenital pathogen in musculoskeletal infections. Because its culture and identification are difficult, special media and real-time PCR are required in case of postoperative deep wound infection after anterior lumbar spine surgery, especially in the case of previous genitourinary infections, to decrease the delay in diagnosis and treatment.European Spine Journal 09/2012; 22(3). DOI:10.1007/s00586-012-2511-9 · 2.47 Impact Factor