Postoperative infections in interbody fusion for degenerative spinal disease.
ABSTRACT Scant literature exists on the treatment of infection after interbody fusion. Some authors advocate removal of the interbody grafts. Salvage of the grafts was possible in 92.3% (12 of 13) of the infections in a series of 326 consecutive patients with degenerative spinal diseases treated by three surgeons. Posterior interbody fusion and posterolateral instrumented fusion was performed in 267 patients and anterior interbody fusion was done in 59 patients. Eight infections in the first group (3%) and six in the second group (10.1%) were identified. Mean followup was 18 months (range, 12-38 months). All infections were early, presenting at a mean of 18 days (range, 11-28 months). All but one infection were in the posterior wound and deep. A high number of risk factors were present in these patients. Initial treatment included wound debridement and broad spectrum antibiotics, until culture results indicated the final antibiotic regimen. Infection recurred as osteomyelitis in one patient with multiple previous surgeries and anterior/posterior fusion. This was treated with removal of the posterior instrumentation and the interbody graft and extensive anterior/posterior reconstruction. Clinical outcomes were good in 10 patients, fair in two and poor in one using the Stauffer-Coventry scale. One pseudarthrosis was identified in a patient with anterior interbody fusion at final followup. Salvage of the interbody graft and retaining the instrumentation was safe in most cases in the presented series and did not adversely affect outcome. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic study, level IV (case series). Please see the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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ABSTRACT: Postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after posterior lumbar spine surgery. This review details an approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of SSIs. Factors contributing to the development of a SSI can be split into three categories: (1) microbiological factors; (2) factors related to the patient and their spinal pathology; and (3) factors relating to the surgical procedure. SSI is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The virulence of the organism causing the SSI can affect its presentation. SSI can be prevented by careful adherence to aseptic technique, prophylactic antibiotics, avoiding myonecrosis by frequently releasing retractors and preoperatively optimizing modifiable patient factors. Increasing pain is commonly the only symptom of a SSI and can lead to a delay in diagnosis. C-reactive protein and magnetic resonance imaging can help establish the diagnosis. Treatment requires acquiring intra-operative cultures to guide future antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement of all necrotic tissue. A SSI can usually be adequately treated without removing spinal instrumentation. A multidisciplinary approach to SSIs is important. It is useful to involve an infectious disease specialist and use minimum serial bactericidal titers to enhance the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. A plastic surgeon should also be involved in those cases of severe infection that require repeat debridement and delayed closure.World journal of orthopedics. 11/2012; 3(11):182-189.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: There is controversy regarding the appropriate proximal fusion level for adult degenerative scoliosis. Ideally, the horizontal vertebra is chosen for the upper instrumented vertebra to create a balanced spine. Fusion to T10 is recommended to prevent junctional problems at the proximal adjacent segment. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the optimal proximal fusion level for adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis (mean age 64.6 years) who underwent posterior instrumentation were analyzed after a minimum 2-year follow-up. The average number of levels fused was 5.9 segments (range 3-9) with distal fusion at L5 in 30 patients and S1 in 21 patients. The upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) ranged from T9 to L2. According to the relationship between UIV, horizontal vertebra (HV) and upper end vertebra (UEV), the patients were divided into three groups in the coronal plane: Group HV (UIV = HV or above); Group HV-UEV (UIV = between HV and UEV); and Group UEV (UIV = UEV or below). In the sagittal plane; the patients were divided into Group T9-10 (UIV = T9-10), Group T11-12 and Group L1-2. RESULTS: Proximal adjacent segment disease (ASD) was identified in 13 (25 %) out of 51 patients, including junctional kyphosis (n = 5), compression fractures (n = 4), progression of disc wedging (n = 2) and spinal stenosis (n = 2). Group UEV had more ASD (9 of 16 patients) compared to Group HV (2 of 21 patients) and Group HV-UEV (2 of 14 patients). It appeared that neutral vertebra could be a criterion for the selection of UIV in the coronal plane. Among the groups divided in the sagittal plane, proximal ASD was found in 47 % of 19 patients in Group L1-2, which was notably higher than 9 % in Group T9-10 and 20 % in Group T11-12. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal adjacent segment disease developed more commonly when the proximal fusion stopped at the UEV or below in adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. UIV must be above UEV in the coronal plane. Fusion to T11 or T12 was acceptable when UIV was above UEV, since there was no significant difference in the rate of proximal adjacent segment between fusion to T10 and fusion to T11 or T12.European Spine Journal 10/2012; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Surgical site infection (SSI) after spinal surgery is a devastating complication. Various methods of skin closure are used in spinal surgery, but the optimal skin-closure method remains unclear. A recent report recommended against the use of metal staples for skin closure in orthopedic surgery. 2-Octyl-cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, NJ, USA) has been widely applied for wound closure in various surgeries. In this cohort study, we assessed the rate of SSI in spinal surgery using metal staples and 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate for wound closure. This study enrolled 609 consecutive patients undergoing spinal surgery in our hospital. From April 2007 to March 2010 surgical wounds were closed with metal staples (group 1, n = 294). From April 2010 to February 2012 skin closure was performed using 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate (group 2, n = 315). We assessed the rate of SSI using these two different methods of wound closure. Prospective study of the time and cost evaluation of wound closure was performed between two groups. Patients in the 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate group had more risk factors for SSI than those in the metal-staple group. Nonetheless, eight patients in the metal-staple group compared with none in the 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate group acquired SSIs (p < 0.01). The closure of the wound in length of 10 cm with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate could save 28 s and $13.5. This study reveals that in spinal surgery, wound closure using 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate was associated with a lower rate of SSI than wound closure with staples. Moreover, the use of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate has a more time saving effect and cost-effectiveness than the use of staples in wound closure of 10 cm in length.European Spine Journal 02/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor