5-Hydroxtryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) has been recognized not only as a neurotransmitter and vasoactive agent, but also as a growth factor. 5-HT mainly binds to 5-HT2 receptors or 5-HT1 receptors on cell surfaces to stimulate cell proliferation through Ras or MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways in many cell types. It has been reported that 5-HT stimulates megakaryocytopoiesis via 5-HT receptors (5-HTR). The possible mechanism by which 5-HT regulates the proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes (MK) is discussed in this review article. In early stages of megakaryocytopoiesis, 5-HT may bind to 5-HT2B receptors on MK to promote their proliferation and differentiation. In the late stages, 5-HT may be involved in platelet release by inducing nitric oxide (NO) synthesis via 5-HT2A receptors. 5-HT can also antagonize the apoptotic effect induced by thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) which is a platelet alpha-granule protein and has synergic effects with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to enhance MK proliferation. Therefore, 5-HT is likely to be an important substance in the feedback regulation of thrombopoiesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that has multiple extraneuronal functions. We previously reported that serotonin exerted mitogenic stimulation on megakaryocytopoiesis mediated by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2 receptors. In this study, we investigated effects of serotonin on ex vivo expansion of human cord blood CD34+ cells, bone marrow (BM) stromal cell colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) formation, and antiapoptosis of megakaryoblastic M-07e cells. Our results showed that serotonin at 200 nM significantly enhanced the expansion of CD34+ cells to early stem/progenitors (CD34+ cells, colony-forming unit-mixed [CFU-GEMM]) and multilineage committed progenitors (burst-forming unit/colony-forming unit-erythroid [BFU/CFU-E], colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage, colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte, CD61+ CD41+ cells). Serotonin also increased nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient repopulating cells in the expansion culture in terms of human CD45+, CD33+, CD14+ cells, BFU/CFU-E, and CFU-GEMM engraftment in BM of animals 6 weeks post-transplantation. Serotonin alone or in addition to fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated BM CFU-F formation. In M-07e cells, serotonin exerted antiapoptotic effects (annexin V, caspase-3, and propidium iodide staining) and reduced mitochondria membrane potential damage. The addition of ketanserin, a competitive antagonist of 5-HT2 receptor, nullified the antiapoptotic effects of serotonin. Our data suggest the involvement of serotonin in promoting hematopoietic stem cells and the BM microenvironment. Serotonin could be developed for clinical ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) has been found altered in platelets of patients with genetically complex disorders, including mood-anxiety, pain and eating disorders. In this study, we used cell cultures of platelet precursors as models of investigation on mechanisms of SERT regulation: SERT expression was appraised during megakaryocytic differentiation of human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells. Cells were cultured for 8 days with 10(-7)M 4-beta-12-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (beta-TPA) in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and SERT was assessed by real time PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blot and [(3)H]5-HT re-uptake. Results revealed that SERT is present in control-untreated MEG-01 cells. beta-TPA-differentiating MEG-01 cells showed a redistribution of SERT fluorescence, diffuse to cell bodies and blebs along with a 3-fold SERT mRNA increase and a moderate raise in SERT protein (1.5/1.4-fold) by immunoblot and re-uptake assays. In summary, we have shown herein that control megakaryoblasts express the SERT protein. SERT is modulated by differentiation events, implying that SERT density in platelets is under the control of megakaryocytopoiesis stages. Differentiation of MEG-01 cells can provide considerable insight into interactions between SERT genetics, transmitter-hormonal/homeostatic mechanisms and signaling pathways.
Neurochemical Research 04/2010; 35(4):628-35. DOI:10.1007/s11064-009-0112-8 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides thrombopoietin several additional factors (i.e neurotransmitters and receptors) are known to be involved in the regulation of megakaryopoiesis at different stages. Recently, we identified functional α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRα7) on platelets and megakaryocytic precursors. In platelets nAChRα7 form functional Ca(2+) channels and are involved in fibrinogen receptor activation and aggregation. Here, we investigated the impact of nAChRα7 on the differentiation of the human megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01. In vitro differentiation of MEG-01 cells was induced by the phorbol ester TPA for 5 days in the absence or presence of nicotine or the nAChRα7-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA), and this was monitored by the expression of the megakaryocytic antigens CD41 and CD61. In the presence of the cholinergic drugs (nicotine or MLA) CD41 and CD61 expression was significantly reduced, both at RNA and protein level. We postulate that the nAChRα7 receptor is involved in megakaryopoietic signal transduction and gene regulation. This could affect the generation of platelets in vivo and contribute to the development of novel therapeutic drugs that regulate platelet formation.
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