Article

The melanosomal/lysosomal protein OA1 has properties of a G protein-coupled receptor.

DIBIT, Scientific Institute San Raffalele, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy.
Pigment Cell Research (Impact Factor: 4.29). 05/2006; 19(2):125-35. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0749.2006.00292.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The protein product of the ocular albinism type 1 gene, named OA1, is a pigment cell-specific integral membrane glycoprotein, localized to melanosomes and lysosomes and possibly implicated in melanosome biogenesis. Although its function remains unknown, we previously showed that OA1 shares structural similarities with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). To ascertain the molecular function of OA1 and in particular its nature as a GPCR, we adopted a heterologous expression strategy commonly exploited to demonstrate GPCR-mediated signaling in mammalian cells. Here we show that when expressed in COS7 cells OA1 displays a considerable and spontaneous capacity to activate heterotrimeric G proteins and the associated signaling cascade. In contrast, OA1 mutants carrying either a missense mutation or a small deletion in the third cytosolic loop lack this ability. Furthermore, OA1 is phosphorylated and interacts with arrestins, well-established multifunctional adaptors of conformationally active GPCRs. In fact, OA1 colocalizes and coprecipitates with arrestins, which downregulate the signaling of OA1 by specifically reducing its expression levels. These findings indicate that heterologously expressed OA1 exhibits two fundamental properties of GPCRs, being capable to activate heterotrimeric G proteins and to functionally associate with arrestins, and provide proof of principle that OA1 can actually function as a canonical GPCR in mammalian cells.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
80 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) internalize after agonist-induced activation. While endocytosis has long been associated with homeostatic attenuation of cellular responsiveness, accumulating evidence from study of a wide range of eukaryotes reveals that the endocytic pathway also contributes to generating receptor-initiated signals themselves. Here we review recent progress in this area, discussing primarily but not exclusively GPCR signaling in mammalian cells.
    Current opinion in cell biology 04/2014; 27C:109-116. · 14.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 12/2014; · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little is known as to how cells ensure that organelle size and number are coordinated to correctly couple organelle biogenesis to the demands of proliferation or differentiation. OA1 is a melanosome-associated G-protein-coupled receptor involved in melanosome biogenesis during melanocyte differentiation. Cells lacking OA1 contain fewer, but larger, mature melanosomes. Here we show that OA1 loss-of-function reduces both the basal expression and the αMSH/cAMP-dependent induction of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), the master regulator of melanocyte differentiation. In turn, this leads to a significant reduction in expression of PMEL, a major melanosomal structural protein, but does not affect tyrosinase and melanin levels. In line with its pivotal role in sensing melanosome maturation, OA1 expression rescues melanosome biogenesis, activates MITF expression and thereby coordinates melanosome size and number, providing a quality-control mechanism for the organelle in which resides. Thus, resident sensor receptors can activate a transcriptional cascade to specifically promote organelle biogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 03/2014; 27:565-579. · 5.84 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
32 Downloads
Available from
May 28, 2014