Cognitive effects of diarrhea, malnutrition, and Entamoeba histolytica infection on school age children in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
ABSTRACT Cognitive function was assessed in 191 Bangladeshi children 6-9 years of age using verbal and nonverbal tests. These scores were added to a health surveillance database that was compiled over the four previous years that includes incidence of diarrhea and Entamoeba histolytica infection and nutritional status. The associations of diarrhea, malnutrition, and social factors with cognitive scores were analyzed statistically, and associations between diarrhea and test scores were controlled for the influence of social factors. Cognitive scores were negatively associated with stunting during school age, as well as the height-for-age and weight-for-age scores at study enrollment. Incidence of diarrhea was associated with nonverbal test scores before, but not after, controlling for socioeconomic factors. Generally E. histolytica infection was not found to independently influence scores, except that E. histolytica-associated dysentery was associated with lower test scores while dysentery of any etiology was not. Thus, malnutrition during the school age years, but not diarrhea or E. histolytica infection, was associated with a lower level of cognitive functioning. This suggested that intervention during school age years may be able to mitigate the cognitive deficiencies associated with malnutrition.
- SourceAvailable from: Md. Shihab Uddin Sobuz[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Robust detection of enteric protozoa is a critical step toward determining the etiology of diarrhea. Widespread use of conventional microscopy, culturing and antigen detection in both industrial and developing countries is limited by relatively low sensitivity and specificity. Refinements of these conventional approaches that reduce turnaround time and instrumentation have yielded strong alternatives for clinical and research use. However, advances in molecular diagnostics for protozoal, bacterial, viral and helminth infections offer significant advantages in studies seeking to understand pathogenesis, transmission and long-term consequences of infectious diarrhea. Quantitation of enteropathogen burden and highly multiplexed platforms for molecular detection dramatically improve predictive power in emerging models of diarrheal etiology, while eliminating the expense of multiple tests.Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 08/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
- Journal of Environmental Engineering. 01/2011; in preparation.
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ABSTRACT: Diarrhea, the second leading cause of child morbidity and mortality, can have detrimental effects in the physical and cognitive development of children in developing countries. Health interventions (e.g., increased access to health services and safe water) designed to address this problem are difficult to implement in resource-limited settings. In this paper, we present a tool for understanding the complex relationship between water and public health in rural areas of a developing country. A spatial and temporal agent-based model (ABM) was developed to simulate the current water, sanitation, and health status in two villages in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The model was calibrated using empirical data and published sources. It was used to simulate the effects of poor water quality on the frequency of diarrheal episodes in children, and consequently on child development. Preliminary simulation results show that at the current total coliform levels in the water sources of the studied villages, children are expected to experience stunting by as much as -1.0 standard deviations from the World Health Organization height norms. With minor modifications, the calibrated ABM can be used to design and evaluate intervention strategies for improving child health in these villages. The model can also be applied to other regions worldwide that face the same environmental challenges and conditions as the studied villages.Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, The 01/2013; 16(4):3. · 1.16 Impact Factor