Guichard C, Pedruzzi E, Fay M, Marie J-C, Braut-Boucher F, Daniel F et al.. Dihydroxyphenylethanol induces apoptosis by activating serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A and promotes the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in human colon carcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 27: 1812-1827
The search for effective chemopreventive compounds is a major challenge facing research into preventing the progression of cancer cells. The naturally occurring polyphenol antioxidants look very promising, but their mechanism of action still remains poorly understood. Here, we show that 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (DPE), a phenol antioxidant derived from olive oil, induces growth arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. The mechanisms involve prolonged stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leading to the activation of the two main branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including the Ire1/XBP-1/GRP78/Bip and PERK/eIF2alpha arms. DPE treatment led to overexpression of the pro-apoptotic factor CHOP/GADD153 and persistent activation of the Jun-NH2-terminal kinase/activator protein-1 signaling pathway. DPE concomitantly modulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt/PKB pro-survival factors by altering their phosphorylation status as well as inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation by inactivating the phosphorylation of nuclear factor inhibitor-kappaB kinase. These findings prompted us to investigate the possible involvement of phosphatases in DPE-mediated action. Using phosphatase inhibitors and RNA interference to silence the Ser/Thr phosphatase 2A (PP2A) prevented DPE-induced cell death. These findings demonstrate that DPE specifically activates PP2A, which plays a key initiating role in various pathways that lead to apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
"Aspirin and mesalazine treatment are both associated with phosphorylation of PP2A which is an inactive form of PP2A [77, 78]. Some other anti-colon-cancer agents like dihydroxyphenylethanol (DPE) are also reported to induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest by activating PP2A . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PP2A is a family of mammalian serine/threonine phosphatases that is involved in the control of many cellular functions including protein synthesis, cellular signaling, cell cycle determination, apoptosis, metabolism, and stress responses through the negative regulation of signaling pathways initiated by protein kinases. Rapid progress is being made in the understanding of PP2A complex and its functions. Emerging studies have correlated changes in PP2A with human diseases, especially cancer. PP2A is comprised of 3 subunits: a catalytic subunit, a scaffolding subunit, and a regulatory subunit. The alternations of the subunits have been shown to be in association with many human malignancies. Therapeutic agents targeting PP2A inhibitors or activating PP2A directly have shed light on the therapy of cancers. This review focuses on PP2A structure, cancer-associated mutations, and the targeting of PP2A-related molecules to restore or reactivate PP2A in anticancer therapy, especially in digestive system cancer therapy.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice 11/2013; 2013(15):675429. DOI:10.1155/2013/675429 · 1.75 Impact Factor
"Extra virgin olive oil consumption occupies a central position in the Mediterranean diet and its regular ingestion has been proposed to provide protection against the development of numerous diseases, most notably cancer . Along with macronutrients, such as a high proportion of MUFAs, its habitual intake delivers relatively high quantities of polyphenols , in particular HT , lignans  and secoiridoids  to the intestinal epithelium. These phenolic compounds, which are present in high amounts in olive oil, compared to other oils, are thought to contribute to the anticancer properties of this dietary oil . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds which are believed to exert beneficial effects against many pathological processes, including the development of colon cancer. We show that one of the major polyphenolic constituents of extra virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol (HT), exerts strong antiproliferative effects against human colon adenocarcinoma cells via its ability to induce a cell cycle block in G2/M. These antiproliferative effects were preceded by a strong inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and a downstream reduction of cyclin D1 expression, rather than by inhibition of p38 activity and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. These findings are of particular relevance due to the high colonic concentration of HT compared to the other olive oil polyphenols and may help explain the inverse link between colon cancer and olive oil consumption.
"A recent study showed an inhibition in the proliferation of colon cancer cells induced by EVOO polyphenols . Moreover, HT induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells by modulating the ER stress-dependent signalling pathways . HT also inhibits human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) proliferation by inducing apoptosis and differentiation  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The olive oil polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol (HT), is believed to be capable of exerting protection against oxidative kidney injury. In this study we have investigated the ability of HT and its O-methylated metabolite, homovanillic alcohol (HVA) to protect renal cells against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. We show that both compounds were capable of inhibiting hydrogen peroxide-induced kidney cell injury via an ability to interact with both MAP kinase and PI3 kinase signalling pathways, albeit at different concentrations. HT strongly inhibited death and prevented peroxide-induced increases in ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3 phosphorylation at 0.3 μM, whilst HVA was effective at 10 μM. At similar concentrations, both compounds also prevented peroxide-induced reductions in Akt phosphorylation. We suggest that one potential protective effect exerted by olive oil polyphenols against oxidative kidney cell injury may be attributed to the interactions of HT and HVA with these important intracellular signalling pathways.
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