Dihydroxyphenylethanol induces apoptosis by activating serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A and promotes the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in human colon carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT The search for effective chemopreventive compounds is a major challenge facing research into preventing the progression of cancer cells. The naturally occurring polyphenol antioxidants look very promising, but their mechanism of action still remains poorly understood. Here, we show that 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (DPE), a phenol antioxidant derived from olive oil, induces growth arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. The mechanisms involve prolonged stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leading to the activation of the two main branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including the Ire1/XBP-1/GRP78/Bip and PERK/eIF2alpha arms. DPE treatment led to overexpression of the pro-apoptotic factor CHOP/GADD153 and persistent activation of the Jun-NH2-terminal kinase/activator protein-1 signaling pathway. DPE concomitantly modulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt/PKB pro-survival factors by altering their phosphorylation status as well as inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation by inactivating the phosphorylation of nuclear factor inhibitor-kappaB kinase. These findings prompted us to investigate the possible involvement of phosphatases in DPE-mediated action. Using phosphatase inhibitors and RNA interference to silence the Ser/Thr phosphatase 2A (PP2A) prevented DPE-induced cell death. These findings demonstrate that DPE specifically activates PP2A, which plays a key initiating role in various pathways that lead to apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic compound peculiarly abundant in olives and it is being recognized as a protector of LDL from oxidation. In addition to lipid oxidation, one emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease is ER stress. We tested the effect of HT on the modulation of ER stress in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were treated with 1 μM and 5 μM of HT and 100 μM lipoic acid (LA) and glutathione-ethyl ester (GSH), for 24 h. Induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) was initiated by treatment with 2 μg/mL tunicamycin for 4 h. Real time RT-PCR analyses followed by Western blot and ELISA of different ER stress markers revealed that the protective activities of HT were superior to those of two known thiolic antioxidants, i.e., LA and GSH. Mounting evidence indicates the ER as an important target of dietary or pharmacological intervention. In this paper, we report the modulatory activities of physiological concentrations of HT toward ER stress and we shed some light on pathways alternative to the well-known antioxidant mechanisms, through which olive oil phenolics modulate cell signaling and could impact cardiovascular health and degenerative diseases.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 12/2013; · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the major olive oil antioxidant polyphenol in cardioprotective Mediterranean diets, is endowed with anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activity. The production of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-dependent inflammatory eicosanoids and the functionally linked release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by macrophages likely contribute to plaque instability leading to acute coronary events. Objective of the study was to examine the HT effects on inflammatory markers in human activated monocytes, including MMP-9 and COX-2 activity and expression and explore HT underlying mechanisms.Methods and resultsHuman peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and U937 monocytes were treated with 1–10 μmol/L HT before activation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). HT blunted monocyte matrix invasive potential and reduced MMP-9 release and expression at zymography, ELISA and RT-PCR, with an IC50 = 10 μmol/L ( P< 0.05), without affecting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Moreover, HT inhibited prostaglandin (PG)E2 production and COX-2 expression, without affecting COX-1. These effects were mediated by inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and protein kinase C (PKC)α and PKCβ1 activation.ConclusionHT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, reduces MMP-9 and COX-2 induction in activated human monocytes via PKCα and PKCβ1 inhibition, thus featuring novel anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, such results contribute to explaining the vascular protective effects by olive oil polyphenols in Mediterranean diets.Atherosclerosis 01/2014; 232(1):17–24. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κB) as a mechanism of host defense against infection and stress is the central mediator of inflammatory responses. A normal (acute) inflammatory response is activated on urgent basis and is auto-regulated. Chronic inflammation that results due to failure in the regulatory mechanism, however, is largely considered as a critical determinant in the initiation and progression of various forms of cancer. Mechanistically, NF- κB favors this process by inducing various genes responsible for cell survival, proliferation, migration, invasion while at the same time antagonizing growth regulators including tumor suppressor p53. It has been shown by various independent investigations that a down regulation of NF- κB activity directly, or indirectly through the activation of the p53 pathway reduces tumor growth substantially. Therefore, there is a huge effort driven by many laboratories to understand the NF- κB signaling pathways to intervene the function of this crucial player in inflammation and tumorigenesis in order to find an effective inhibitor directly, or through the p53 tumor suppressor. We discuss here on the role of NF- κB in chronic inflammation and cancer, highlighting mutual antagonism between NF- κB and p53 pathways in the process. We also discuss prospective pharmacological modulators of these two pathways, including those that were already tested to affect this mutual antagonism.Journal of inflammation (London, England). 01/2014; 11:23.