Identification of functional domains in sarcoglycans essential for their interaction and plasma membrane targeting.
ABSTRACT Mutations in sarcoglycans have been reported to cause autosomal-recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. In skeletal and cardiac muscle, sarcoglycans are assembled into a complex on the sarcolemma from four subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). In this report, we present a detailed structural analysis of sarcoglycans using deletion study, limited proteolysis and co-immunoprecipitation. Our results indicate that the extracellular regions of sarcoglycans consist of distinctive functional domains connected by proteinase K-sensitive sites. The N-terminal half domains are required for sarcoglycan interaction. The C-terminal half domains of beta-, gamma- and delta-sarcoglycan consist of a cysteine-rich motif and a previously unrecognized conserved sequence, both of which are essential for plasma membrane localization. Using a heterologous expression system, we demonstrate that missense sarcoglycan mutations affect sarcoglycan complex assembly and/or localization to the cell surface. Our data suggest that the formation of a stable complex is necessary but not sufficient for plasma membrane targeting. Finally, we provide evidence that the beta/delta-sarcoglycan core can associate with the C-terminus of dystrophin. Our results therefore generate important information on the structure of the sarcoglycan complex and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of various sarcoglycan mutations in muscular dystrophies.
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ABSTRACT: Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD and likely represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (-)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild type or δ-SG null 2.5 month old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (control animals) or Epi (1 mg/kg, twice/day) for 2 weeks. Results evidence a significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio) and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in protein levels for thiolredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we evidence decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied with an improvement in skeletal muscle function with treatment. These results warrant the further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD associated muscle degeneration.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEBS Journal 10/2014; 281(24). DOI:10.1111/febs.13098 · 3.99 Impact Factor
Neuromuscular Disorders 10/2008; 18(9):785-785. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2008.06.211 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) is a collection of glycoproteins that are essential for the normal function of striated muscle and many other tissues. Recent genetic studies have implicated the components of this complex in over a dozen forms of muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, disruption of the DGC has been implicated in many forms of acquired disease. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the processing and assembly of dystrophin-associated proteins with a focus primarily on the dystroglycan heterodimer and the sarcoglycan complex. These proteins form the transmembrane portion of the DGC and undergo a complex multi-step processing with proteolytic cleavage, differential assembly, and both N- and O-glycosylation. The enzymes responsible for this processing and a model describing the sequence and subcellular localization of these events are discussed. Anat Rec, 297:1694–1705, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 09/2014; 297(9). DOI:10.1002/ar.22974 · 1.34 Impact Factor