Genomic features of attenuated Junín virus vaccine strain candidate.

LIGBCM, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Rogue Saenz Peña 180, B1876BXD, Bernal, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Virus Genes (Impact Factor: 1.77). 03/2006; 32(1):37-41. DOI: 10.1007/s11262-005-5843-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Junin virus strain Candid #1 was developed as a live attenuated vaccine for Argentine haemorrhagic fever. In this paper, we report the nucleotide sequences of L RNA of Candid #1 and examine the relationship to its more virulent ancestors Junin virus XJ#44 and XJ 13 (prototype) and other closely and distantly related arenaviruses. Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of L and Z genes of Candid #1 and its progenitor strains revealed twelve point mutations in the L polypeptide that are unique to the vaccine strain. These changes could be provisionally associated with the attenuated phenotype. In contrast, Z ORF was completely conserved among all strains.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Arenaviridae family includes several hemorrhagic fever viruses which are important emerging pathogens. Junín virus, a member of this family, is the etiological agent of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF). A collaboration between the Governments of Argentina and the USA rendered the attenuated Junín virus vaccine strain Candid#1. Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses with genomes consisting of two single-stranded RNA species (L and S), each carrying two coding regions separated by a stably structured, non-coding intergenic region. Molecular characterization of the vaccine strain and of its more virulent ancestors, XJ13 (prototype) and XJ#44, allows a systematic approach for the discovery of key elements in virulence attenuation. We show comparisons of sequence information for the S RNA of the strains XJ13, XJ#44 and Candid#1 of Junín virus, along with other strains from the vaccine lineage and a set of Junín virus field strains collected at the AHF endemic area. Comparisons of nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed different point mutations which might be linked to the attenuated phenotype. The majority of changes are consistent with a progressive attenuation of virulence between XJ13, XJ#44 and Candid#1. We propose that changes found in genomic regions with low natural variation frequencies are more likely to be associated with the virulence attenuation process. We partially sequenced field strains to analyze the genomic variability naturally occurring for Junín virus. This information, together with the sequence analysis of strains with intermediate virulence, will serve as a starting point to study the molecular bases for viral attenuation.
    Current Genomics 11/2013; 14(7):415-24. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arenaviruses can cause fatal human haemorrhagic fever (HF) diseases for which vaccines and therapies are extremely limited. Both the New World (NW) and Old World (OW) groups of arenaviruses contain HF-causing pathogens. Although these two groups share many similarities, important differences with regards to pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of virus infection exist. These closely related pathogens share many characteristics, including genome structure, viral assembly, natural host selection, and the ability to interfere with innate immune signalling. However, members of the NW and OW viruses appear to use different receptors for cellular entry as well as different mechanisms of virus internalization. General differences in disease signs and symptoms and pathological lesions in patients infected with either the NW or OW arenaviruses are also noted and discussed herein. While both the OW Lassa virus (LASV) and the NW Junin (JUNV) can cause disruption of the vascular endothelium, which is an important pathological feature of HF, the immune responses to these related pathogens seem to be quite distinct. Whereas LASV infection results in an overall generalized immune suppression, patients infected with JUNV seem to develop a cytokine storm. Additionally, the type of immune response required for recovery and clearance of the virus is different between the NW and OW infections. These differences may be important to allow the viruses to evade host immune detection. Understanding these differences will aid the development of new vaccines and treatment strategies against deadly haemorrhagic fever viral infections.
    Journal of General Virology 09/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Seven arenaviruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever in humans: the Old World arenaviruses Lassa and Lujo, and the New World Clade B arenaviruses Machupo (MACV), Junín (JUNV), Guanarito (GTOV), Sabiá (SABV), and Chapare (CHPV). All of these viruses are Risk Group 4 biosafety pathogens. MACV causes human disease outbreak with high case-fatality rates. To date, at least 1,200 cases with ≈200 fatalities have been recorded. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes available systems and technologies for the identification of antivirals against MACV. Furthermore, the article summarizes animal models that have been used for the in vivo evaluation of novel inhibitors. The article highlights present treatments for arenaviral diseases and provides an overview of efficacious small molecules and other therapeutics reported to date. Finally, the article summarizes strategies to identify novel inhibitors for anti-arenaviral therapy. EXPERT OPINION: New high-throughput approaches to quantitate infection rates of arenaviruses, as well as viruses modified to carry reporter genes, will accelerate compound screens and drug discovery efforts. RNAi, gene expression profiling and proteomics studies will identify host targets for therapeutic intervention. New discoveries in the cell entry mechanism of MACV and other arenaviruses as well as extensive structural studies of arenaviral L and NP could facilitate the rational design of antivirals effective against all pathogenic New World arenaviruses.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 05/2012; 7(7):613-32. · 2.30 Impact Factor


Available from
May 20, 2014