Pathological findings in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Norwegian and Icelandic waters
ABSTRACT A study of 37 by-caught harbour porpoises from Icelandic and Norwegian waters showed that most were in good or moderate nutritional condition and none was severely emaciated. Mild infection with lungworms (Halocercus invaginatus, Pseudalius inflexus, Torynurus convolutus) was found in 84% of the Icelandic and 91% of the Norwegian animals, usually associated with bronchopneumonia which was rarely severe. Most (91%) of the animals had parasites in the stomach and intestine (Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum osculatum, Pholeter gastrophilus), and Campula oblonga was present in the liver and pancreas of 88 and 21%, respectively. Oesophagitis, gastritis, cholangitis, pericholangitis, pancreatitis and lymphadenitis were almost exclusively associated with parasitic infection and usually mild. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 50 to 55% of the animals but were not considered to be clinically significant. There was no indication of morbillivirus infection. Icelandic and Norwegian animals showed a thicker blubber layer and a lower incidence of severe lesions, especially in the respiratory tract, as compared with reports of by-caught animals from the Baltic Sea.
SourceAvailable from: Kristina Lehnert[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00300-013-1433-2 Knowledge about parasitism in harbour porpoises and their health status around Greenland is scarce. This study provides knowledge about the poorly studied cetacean in its rapidly changing environment. Parasites and pathological findings in 20 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) hunted in waters around West Greenland are presented. Carcasses were dissected, and parasitological, histological and bacteriological investigations were carried out. Protozoa (Sarcocystis sp.), Nematoda (Halocercus invaginatus, Stenurus minor, Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s.l.), Crassicauda sp.), Trematoda (Campula oblonga) and Cestoda (Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldii) were found. Parasitic infection of the peribullar cavity and lung with pseudaliid nematodes was found in most animals. Sixty per cent of the porpoises were infected with stomach worms, and trematodes were present in liver and pancreas of 90 and 30 % of the porpoises, respectively. Crassicauda sp. was isolated from perimuscular fascia in 45 % of the animals. This is the first record of tetraphyllidean merocercoids in harbour porpoises. M. grimaldii and P. delphini were found in blubber layer of 15 % and abdominal cavity of 50 % of the porpoises. Bronchopneumonia, gastritis, cholangitis, pancreatitis and panniculitis were almost exclusively associated with parasitic infection and usually mild. Compared with a previous study of Greenlandic porpoises from 1995, a significant increase in severity of parasitic infections and the emergence of new parasite species were observed, most likely associated with changes in diet, influenced by increasing sea temperatures and receding ice cover. Other actionsPolar Biology 12/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00300-013-1433-2 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107038. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107038 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 01/2013; DOI:10.9775/kvfd.2013.9409 · 0.29 Impact Factor