Sigauke E, Rakheja D, Maddox DL, et al.. Absence of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 in malignant rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system, kidneys and soft tissue: an immunohistochemical study with implications for diagnosis

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9073, USA.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.36). 06/2006; 19(5):717-25. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.3800581
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Malignant rhabdoid tumors are high-grade neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS), kidneys and soft tissue that usually occur in children. The histologic diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumor depends on identification of characteristic rhabdoid cells-large cells with eccentrically located nuclei and abundant, eosinophilic cytoplasm-and immunohistochemistry with antibodies to vimentin, keratin and epithelial membrane antigen. In most malignant rhabdoid tumors, the SMARCB1/INI1 gene, located in chromosome band 22q11.2, is inactivated by deletions and/or mutations, so genetic diagnosis is often possible. However, tissue may not be available for genetic analysis or studies not confirmatory. We assessed SMARCB1/INI1 expression in 17 rhabdoid tumors and 57 other tumors of the CNS, kidney or soft tissue using immunohistochemistry. In total, 12 brain, three renal and two soft tissue rhabdoid tumors were examined along with four glioblastomas, four pilocytic astrocytomas, four oligodendrogliomas, two ependymomas, two choroid plexus papillomas, five pituitary adenomas, four germinomas, four renal carcinomas with Xp11.2 translocations, two clear cell sarcomas, two Wilms' tumors, one renal medullary carcinoma, two desmoplastic small round cell tumors, two alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, two embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, one low-grade chondrosarcoma, two extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, one mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, four malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, five metastatic carcinomas and four epithelioid sarcomas, two primary and two metastatic. The neoplastic cells of all rhabdoid tumors, the four epithelioid sarcomas and the renal medullary carcinoma did not express SMARCB1/INI1 by immunohistochemistry; neoplastic cells of all other tumors expressed SMARCB1/INI1. Immunohistochemistry to assess expression of SMARCB1/INI1 may be useful in the diagnosis of rhabdoid tumors of the CNS, kidneys and soft tissue.

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    ABSTRACT: Composite rhabdoid tumors are typically adult tumors that contain a component of rhabdoid cells, which are characteristic of the aggressive childhood malignant rhabdoid tumor. Pediatric rhabdoid tumors are characterized by the inactivation of the hSNF5/INI1/SMARCB1 gene, with subsequent loss of expression of the protein. In contrast, only a single composite rhabdoid tumor has demonstrated involvement of the INI1 gene. In our study, INI1 protein expression was studied in 2 uterine carcinosarcomas with rhabdoid components (composite rhabdoid tumors). The rhabdoid component of 1 tumor showed lack of immunoreactivity for the INI1 protein and strong positivity for cyclin D1, whereas the adenocarcinomatous component of the tumor and both components of the second tumor were immunoreactive for the INI1 protein and negative for cyclin D1. Loss of one INI1 allele and a mutation in exon 7 of the remaining allele were detected in the first tumor, consistent with the immunohistochemistry results. Our results demonstrate that deletions and mutations of the INI1 gene can occur also in rare composite rhabdoid tumors of adulthood. Further studies are necessary, however, to determine the prognostic significance of this finding.
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