Calreticulin negatively regulates the cell surface expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.
ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-dependent Cl- channel at the plasma membrane, and its malfunction results in cystic fibrosis, the most common lethal genetic disease in Caucasians. Quality control of CFTR is strictly regulated by several molecular chaperones. Here we show that calreticulin (CRT), which is a lectin-like chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), negatively regulates the cell surface CFTR. RNA interference-based CRT knockdown induced the increase of CFTR expression. Consistently, this effect was observed in vivo. CRT heterozygous (CRT+/-) mice had a higher endogenous expression of CFTR than the wild-type mice. Moreover, CRT overexpression induced cell surface expression of CRT, and it significantly decreased the cell surface expression and function of CFTR. CRT overexpression destabilized the cell surface CFTR by enhancing endocytosis, leading to proteasomal degradation. Deletion of the carboxyl domain of CRT, which results in its ER export, increased the negative effect and enhanced the interaction with CFTR. Thus, CRT in the post-ER compartments may act as a negative regulator of the cell surface CFTR.
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ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that the great phenotypic variability in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) not only depends on the genotype, but apart from a combination of environmental and stochastic factors predominantly also on modifier gene effects. It has been proposed that genes interacting with CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) are potential modifiers. Therefore, we assessed the impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of several of these interacters on CF disease outcome. SNPs that potentially alter gene function were genotyped in 95 well-characterized p.Phe508del homozygous CF patients. Linear mixed-effect model analysis was used to assess the relationship between sequence variants and the repeated measurements of lung function parameters. In total, we genotyped 72 SNPs in 10 genes. Twenty-five SNPs were used for statistical analysis, where we found strong associations for one SNP in PPP2R4 with the lung clearance index (P≤0.01), the specific effective airway resistance (P≤0.005) and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (P≤0.005). In addition, we identified one SNP in SNAP23 to be significantly associated with three lung function parameters as well as one SNP in PPP2R1A and three in KRT19 to show a significant influence on one lung function parameter each. Our findings indicate that direct interacters with CFTR, such as SNAP23, PPP2R4 and PPP2R1A, may modify the residual function of p.Phe508del-CFTR while variants in KRT19 may modulate the amount of p.Phe508del-CFTR at the apical membrane and consequently modify CF disease.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 15 August 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.181.European journal of human genetics: EJHG 08/2012; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the activated unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling associated with it play key roles in physiological processes as well as under pathological conditions. The UPR normally protects cells and re-establishes cellular homeostasis, but prolonged UPR activation can lead to the development of various pathologies. These features make the UPR signaling pathway an attractive target for the treatment of diseases whose pathogenesis is characterized by chronic activation of this pathway. Here, we focus on the molecular signaling pathways of the UPR and suggest possible ways to target this response for therapeutic purposes.Seminars in Immunopathology 04/2013; · 5.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The neuroendocrine Cav1.3 L-type Ca channels have been recently found in the Human fetal heart and shown to play a vital role in Ca entry from the sarcolemma into the cell and in Ca homeostasis. Calreticulin, a Ca binding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein, has been recently shown to translocate to the cell surface where it is role and function are just emerging. Here, we demonstrated a novel mechanism of Cav1.3 and calreticulin interaction resulting in downregulation of Cav1.3 channel densities in native Human fetal cardiac cells and Human Embryonic Kidney cell lines (tsA201). Cell surface and cytoplasmic staining of calreticulin was demonstrated first in cultured human fetal cardiomyocytes (HFC), gestational age 18-24weeks, using confocal microscopy thereby establishing that calreticulin is present at the cell surface in HFC. Co-immunoprecipitation from HFC using anti-Cav1.3 Ca channel antibody, and probing with anti-calreticulin antibody revealed a 46kDa band corresponding to calreticulin suggesting that Cav1.3 Ca channel and calreticulin co-assemble in a macromolecular complex. Co-expression of Cav1.3 and calreticulin in tsA201 cells resulted in a decrease in surface expression of Cav1.3 Ca channels. These findings were consistent with the electrophysiological studies showing that co-transfection of Cav1.3 Ca channel and calreticulin resulted in 55% reduction of Cav1.3 Ca current densities recorded from tsA201 cells. The results show the first evidence that calreticulin: (1) is localized outside the ER on the cell surface of HFC; (2) coimmunoprecipitates with Cav1.3 L-type Ca channel; (3) negatively regulates Cav1.3 surface expression thus resulting in decreased Cav1.3 Ca current densities. The data demonstrate a novel mechanism of modulation of Cav1.3 Ca channel by calreticulin, which may be involved in pathological settings such as autoimmune associated congenital heart block where Cav1.3 Ca channels are downregulated.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor