Does immunostaining effectively upstage colorectal cancer by identifying micrometastatic nodal disease?
ABSTRACT Measure the association between the incidence of primary tumor staining and the identification of mediastinal lymph node (MLN) using cytokeratins, NM23, DCC-positive tumors, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in T(2) and T(3)/N(0) colorectal cancers. The impact of MLN on both recurrence and survival was assessed.
There were 153 CORC patients (T(2), T(3)/N(0)) selected from a prospectively accrued database. All patients had been staged by routine histopathology after a curative resection and no patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary tumors (PT) were assessed with a panel of immunohistochemical stains (cytokeratin, DCC, Nm23, and VEGF). If the PT was positive, the regional nodes were assessed with that marker(s). For any positive tumor marker, all lymph nodes (LNs, mean of 12.6+/-4.2) were stained for this marker.
Patient age ranged from 38 to 86 years with a mean age of 61.56+/-25.56 years. Mean follow-up was 72.1+/-32.4 months. Recurrence rate of the whole group was 19/153 (12.4%) and the mean time to recurrence was 37.6+/-23.6 months (15 to 77 months). Crude mortality was 39.9%, while the cancer specific mortality was 11.2% after the whole follow-up period. The relationship between PT staining and MLNs was: cytokeratin-PT 143 (93.5%)/MLN 9 (6.3%); NM23-PT 51 (33.3%)/MLN 3 (5.9%); DCC-PT 79 (53%)/MLN 3 (3.8%); and VEGF-PT 72 (47%)/MLN 4 (5.6%). Nineteen (12.4%) patients experienced tumor recurrence. No correlation exist between PT and/or MLN staining and either recurrence or survival. No patient with MLN with any stain experienced a recurrence. There was no advantage to using an individual stain or all four stains.
Immunohistochemical stains for PT and focused analysis of regional nodes did not improve prediction of survival or recurrence. Sentinel LN evaluation and the provision of adjuvant chemotherapy in node-negative patients should be questioned and not be utilized outside of a research protocol.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The reduced expression of CD10 may be related to unfavorable prognosis of patients with colorectal carcinoma. The authors analyzed the tissue immunostaining of CD10 protein in colorectal carcinoma and its relationship to clinicopathologic features. METHOD: In 130 patients submitted to colorectal carcinoma surgery, a tissue microarray block was obtained from the tumor and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa and submitted to immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody CD10. Theimmunostaining was evaluated by semi-quantitative method, with stained cell count in percentage. The results were related to the location, anatomopathological features, presence of lymph node and hepatic metastases and TNM staging of the colorectal neoplasm. The statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The expression of CD10 marker was higher in colorectal tumor tissue than in adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa (p<0.0001) and was higher than in exophytic lesions (p=0.04). The expression of CD10 protein was not associated with other clinical and pathological aspects of colorectal neoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of CD10 protein was more intense in tumor tissue of colorectal carcinoma than in adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa and was related to the exophytic appearance of the tumor.Journal of Coloproctology (Rio de Janeiro). 03/2012; 32(1):34-39.
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ABSTRACT: Lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in colon cancer, but the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a tool for identification of micrometastatic disease and extraanatomical lymph nodes for adjuvant strategies and a tailored approach still remains unclear. Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence detection is a new method for SLNB allowing real-time lymphography and lymph node detection. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node detection in colon carcinoma. Twenty six patients with colon adenocarcinoma were prospectively included in this study. Intraoperatively, a peritumorous injection with a mean of 2.0 ml ICG was performed, followed by lymphatic mapping and SLNB. Clinical feasibility, detection rate, and sensitivity of the method were analyzed. No adverse reactions occurred due to the injection of ICG. Overall, ICG fluorescence imaging identified 1.7 sentinel lymph node (SLN) in average in 25 out of 26 patients (detection rate, 96%). Metastatic involvement of the SLN was found in nine out of 11 nodal positive patients by conventional histopathology. The sensitivity of the method was 82% for colon carcinoma, respectively. ICG fluorescence imaging is a new, feasible method for SLNB of colon carcinoma and enables ultrastaging with improved accuracy but with limited validity due to the small number of cases. One advantage of this technique is real-time visualization of lymphatic vessels and SLNB without radiation exposure. Further, larger series are necessary to analyze the role of fluorescence-guided SLNB for colon cancer.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 09/2011; 27(3):319-24. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Up to 30% of stage II patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer (CRC) will develop disease recurrence. We evaluated whether examination of lymph nodes by multilevel sectioning and immunohistochemical staining can improve prognostication. Lymph nodes (n = 780) from 36 CRC patients who had developed disease recurrence (cases) and 72 patients who showed no recurrence of disease for at least 5 years (controls) were analyzed. Sections of 4 levels at 200-microm interval were immunohistochemically stained for cytokeratin expression. The first level was analyzed by conventional and automated microscopy, and the 3 following levels were analyzed by automated microscopy for the presence of tumor cells. Overall, cases showed more micrometastases (3 patients) than controls (1 patient). Analysis of a second level led to the additional detection of 1 patient with micrometastases (case) and 1 patient with macrometastasis (case). Examining more levels only led to additional isolated tumor cells, which were equally divided between cases and controls. Likewise, automated microscopy resulted only in detection of additional isolated tumor cells when compared with conventional microscopy. In multivariate analysis, micrometastases [odds ratio (OR) 26.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-364.8, p = 0.015], T4 stage (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.4-16.7, p = 0.013) and number of lymph nodes (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-1.0, p = 0.028) were independent predictors for disease recurrence. Lymph node analysis of 2 levels and immunohistochemical staining add to the detection of macrometastases and micrometastases in CRC. Micrometastases were found to be an independent predictor of disease recurrence. Isolated tumor cells were of no prognostic significance.International Journal of Cancer 09/2009; 126(11):2644-52. · 6.20 Impact Factor