Article

A review of vaccine research and development: the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

University Paris 7, 39 rue Seignemartin, FR 69008 Lyon, France.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.49). 06/2006; 24(19):4062-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.02.031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since the discovery of AIDS in 1981, the global spread of HIV has reached pandemic proportions, representing a global developmental and public health threat. The development of a safe, globally effective and affordable HIV vaccine offers the best hope for the future control of the pandemic. Significant progress has been made over the past years in the areas of basic virology, immunology, pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and the development of antiretroviral drugs. However, the development of an HIV vaccine faces formidable scientific challenges related to the high genetic variability of the virus, the lack of immune correlates of protection, limitations with the existing animal models and logistical problems associated with the conduct of multiple clinical trials. More than 35 vaccine candidates have been tested in Phase I/II clinical trials, involving more than 10,000 volunteers, and two Phase III trials have been completed, themselves involving more than 7500 volunteers. Multiple vaccine concepts and vaccination strategies have been tested, including DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines, live vectored recombinant vaccines and various prime-boost vaccine combinations. This article reviews the state of the art in HIV vaccine development, summarizes the results obtained so far and discusses the challenges to be met in the development of the various vaccine candidates.

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