Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents: attitudes, barriers, and practices among pediatric clinicians.
ABSTRACT The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends screening children at risk for type 2 diabetes with a fasting plasma glucose test or an oral glucose tolerance test. The purpose of this study was to describe attitudes, barriers, and practices related to type 2 diabetes screening in children among pediatric clinicians.
Pediatricians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants from a multispecialty, group practice in Eastern Massachusetts completed a mailed survey. To assess screening practice, three vignettes were presented representing pediatric patients with low, moderately high, and high risk for type 2 diabetes. The moderately high-risk and high-risk patients met ADA criteria for screening. ADA-consistent practice was defined as only screening the moderately high-risk and high-risk patients; lower-threshold practice was defined as also screening the low-risk patient; and higher threshold practice was screening only the high-risk patient.
Sixty-two of 90 clinicians responded (69%). Based on intent to screen in the 3 vignettes, 21% of respondents reported ADA-consistent screening practice, 39% lower-threshold, and 35% higher-threshold screening practice. Five percent had incomplete or nonclassifiable responses. Many clinicians ordered screening tests other than those recommended by the ADA; few (< or =8% in any vignette) ordered only an ADA-recommended test. Preferences for nonfasting tests were influenced by nonmedical factors such as access to or cost of transportation. Inadequate patient education materials and unclear recommendations for appropriate screening methods were the most frequently reported moderate/strong barriers to screening.
Most respondents reported type 2 diabetes screening practices that differed from current ADA recommendations. Our findings suggest that type 2 diabetes screening tests must be practical for clinicians and patients if they are to be used in pediatric practice. Further study of the benefits and cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening in children is warranted to clarify the role and optimal methods for screening in pediatric primary care.
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ABSTRACT: To characterize pediatrician and family physician (FP) screening practices for type 2 diabetes among adolescents and to examine the impact of the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines, recommending use of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We conducted a cross-sectional mail survey of a random sample of 1,400 U.S. pediatricians and FPs and we received 604 eligible responses. Our main outcome measure was the types of tests ordered by physicians, particularly HbA1c, when presented with a hypothetical scenario. The overall response rate was 52% (57% for pediatricians and 48% for FPs). Fasting glucose and HbA1c were the most commonly ordered tests. Overall, at least 58% of physicians ordered HbA1c; 35% ordered HbA1c in conjunction with fasting tests; and 22% ordered HbA1c alone or with nonfasting tests. Only 38% of providers were aware of the new ADA recommended HbA1c screening guidelines. However, a majority (67%) said they would change their screening practices. In the context of the guidelines, 84% of physicians would now order HbA1c. Furthermore, there was a large increase in the proportion of physicians who would shift to using HbA1c only or with other nonfasting tests. When screening adolescents for type 2 diabetes, providers are more likely to order HbA1c and order fewer fasting tests in response to the new ADA guidelines. HbA1c has lower sensitivity and higher costs than other testing modalities in children, therefore increasing uptake of this test (HbA1c) in children may have implications for both detection rates and healthcare costs.Journal of Adolescent Health 08/2013; 54(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.003 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) makes it important for pediatricians to use effective screening tools for risk assessment of prediabetes/T2DM in children. Methods. Children (n = 149) who had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were studied. American Diabetes Association recommended screening criteria-HbA1c ≥5.7% and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥100 mg/dL-were compared against OGTT. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a mathematical index derived from fasting insulin and glucose, was compared with OGTT. We studied whether combining screening tests (HbA1c and fasting glucose or HbA1c and HOMA-IR) improved accuracy of prediction of the OGTT. Results. HbA1c of ≥5.7% had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 57% when compared with the OGTT. Combining screening tests (HbA1c ≥5.7% and FPG ≥100 mg/dL; HbA1c ≥5.7% and HOMA-IR ≥3.4) resulted in improved sensitivity (95.5% for each), with the HbA1c-FPG doing better than the HbA1c-HOMA-IR combination in terms of ability to rule out prediabetes (likelihood ratio [LR]) negative. 0.07 vs 0.14). Conclusions. HbA1c of ≥5.7% provided fair discrimination of glucose tolerance compared with the OGTT. The combination of HbA1c and FPG is a useful method for identifying children who require an OGTT.Clinical Pediatrics 03/2014; 53(8). DOI:10.1177/0009922814528571 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: to evaluate the role of adding grandparents' data to parental information to the assessment of a family history of diabetes, in order to identify adolescents with high fasting glucose. in 2003 we evaluated 1276 population-based 13-year-olds, from Porto, Portugal. The history of diabetes in parents and grandparents was collected using self-reported questionnaires and a clinical evaluation was performed, including a fasting blood sample. The 75th percentile of fasting plasma glucose (FPG = 91 mg/dl) was used to create two groups of participants (high vs. low fasting glucose). no association was found between family history of diabetes (with or without grandparental data) and a high FPG. The sensitivity to identify individuals with high FPG increased from 7.8% to 47.9% when grandparental history was combined with parental data. The positive predictive value was slightly increased (25.2% vs. 27.8%) but the specificity dropped (91.8% vs. 56.4%). combining parental with grandparental history increased the number of adolescents with a positive family history of diabetes and also increased the sensitivity to identify adolescents with high FPG. So, even if it determines a decrease in specificity, grandparental data is relevant when screening for high fasting glucose in adolescents.Preventive Medicine 07/2013; 57(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.06.028 · 2.93 Impact Factor