Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents: attitudes, barriers, and practices among pediatric clinicians.

Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Ambulatory Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 2.49). 03/2006; 6(2):110-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.ambp.2005.10.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends screening children at risk for type 2 diabetes with a fasting plasma glucose test or an oral glucose tolerance test. The purpose of this study was to describe attitudes, barriers, and practices related to type 2 diabetes screening in children among pediatric clinicians.
Pediatricians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants from a multispecialty, group practice in Eastern Massachusetts completed a mailed survey. To assess screening practice, three vignettes were presented representing pediatric patients with low, moderately high, and high risk for type 2 diabetes. The moderately high-risk and high-risk patients met ADA criteria for screening. ADA-consistent practice was defined as only screening the moderately high-risk and high-risk patients; lower-threshold practice was defined as also screening the low-risk patient; and higher threshold practice was screening only the high-risk patient.
Sixty-two of 90 clinicians responded (69%). Based on intent to screen in the 3 vignettes, 21% of respondents reported ADA-consistent screening practice, 39% lower-threshold, and 35% higher-threshold screening practice. Five percent had incomplete or nonclassifiable responses. Many clinicians ordered screening tests other than those recommended by the ADA; few (< or =8% in any vignette) ordered only an ADA-recommended test. Preferences for nonfasting tests were influenced by nonmedical factors such as access to or cost of transportation. Inadequate patient education materials and unclear recommendations for appropriate screening methods were the most frequently reported moderate/strong barriers to screening.
Most respondents reported type 2 diabetes screening practices that differed from current ADA recommendations. Our findings suggest that type 2 diabetes screening tests must be practical for clinicians and patients if they are to be used in pediatric practice. Further study of the benefits and cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening in children is warranted to clarify the role and optimal methods for screening in pediatric primary care.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) makes it important for pediatricians to use effective screening tools for risk assessment of prediabetes/T2DM in children. Methods. Children (n = 149) who had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were studied. American Diabetes Association recommended screening criteria-HbA1c ≥5.7% and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥100 mg/dL-were compared against OGTT. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a mathematical index derived from fasting insulin and glucose, was compared with OGTT. We studied whether combining screening tests (HbA1c and fasting glucose or HbA1c and HOMA-IR) improved accuracy of prediction of the OGTT. Results. HbA1c of ≥5.7% had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 57% when compared with the OGTT. Combining screening tests (HbA1c ≥5.7% and FPG ≥100 mg/dL; HbA1c ≥5.7% and HOMA-IR ≥3.4) resulted in improved sensitivity (95.5% for each), with the HbA1c-FPG doing better than the HbA1c-HOMA-IR combination in terms of ability to rule out prediabetes (likelihood ratio [LR]) negative. 0.07 vs 0.14). Conclusions. HbA1c of ≥5.7% provided fair discrimination of glucose tolerance compared with the OGTT. The combination of HbA1c and FPG is a useful method for identifying children who require an OGTT.
    Clinical Pediatrics 03/2014; 53(8). DOI:10.1177/0009922814528571 · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess available blood tests as potential screening tools for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We studied 468 obese (BMI mean: 34.4 kg/m(2)) children, including a subgroup with serum fasting insulin levels of >15 microIU/mL. Fasting laboratory tests included measurements of serum glucose and insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (insulin-resistant subgroup only) levels. An oral glucose-tolerance test was performed on each patient, and 2-hour postload serum glucose and insulin levels were obtained. Fasting blood glucose (BG), Homeostasis Model of Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), HbA1c, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol values were used as predictors for exceeding various 2-hour BG cut-offs. Receiver operator characteristic curves were fitted to determine area-under-the-curve values as measures of screening efficacy. In the insulin-resistant subgroup, 3 (2%) patients had T2DM and 23 (12%) had IGT. Optimal sensitivity and specificity to detect T2DM were, respectively, 99% and 96% at HbA1c >or= 6.0%, and 96% and 88% at 1,5-anhydroglucitol < 17.0 microg/mL, with lower values for fasting BG and the HOMA-IR. In the entire study group, 9 (2%) patients had T2DM and 44 (9%) had IGT. Optimal sensitivity and specificity to detect T2DM were, respectively, 86% and 85% at HbA1c levels of 5.7%, 88%, and 93% at a fasting BG level of 104 mg/dL, and 62% and 70% at an HOMA-IR of 7.9. HbA1c, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, and fasting BG levels are good predictors of T2DM in obese children, whereas HOMA-IR values are not. HbA1c and 1,5-anhydroglucitol are excellent predictors of T2DM in insulin-resistant obese children.
    PEDIATRICS 09/2009; 124(2):573-9. DOI:10.1542/peds.2008-2949 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigates risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population of children in public schools, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. A total of 727 children aged 6 to 11 years old from 12 schools were evaluated between March and June 2008. A form addressing socio-demographic data, body mass index, blood pressure, capillary blood glucose and waist circumference was applied. A total of 54.1% of the children were female, 21.7% were overweight, 6.6% were obese, 27% had central obesity, 6.2% showed altered capillary glucose, and 17% high blood pressure. In relation to risk factors, 53.4% presented no risk factors; 24.3% had at least one factor and 18.8% two risk factors. Nurses can intervene in schools through educational health programs encouraging the adoption of healthy habits and identifying children at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 10/2010; 18(5):936-42. DOI:10.1590/S0104-11692010000500014 · 0.54 Impact Factor