Repair and reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton represents a significant biomedical burden, with thousands of procedures per-formed annually secondary to injuries and congenital malformations. Given the multitude of current approaches, the need for more effective strategies to repair these bone deficits is apparent. This article explores two major modalities for craniofacial bone tissue engineering: distraction osteogenesis and cellular based therapies. Current understanding of the guiding principles for each of these modalities is elaborated on along with the knowledge gained from clinical and investigative studies. By laying this foundation, future directions for craniofacial distraction and cell-based bone engineering have emerged with great promise for the advancement of clinical practice.
"According to Pittenger, et al., bone marrow–derived MSC are now under consideration for the repair of craniofacial bone and even the replacement or regeneration of oral tissues. Reconstruction of craniofacial and dental defects using MSC avoids many of the limitations of both auto- and allografting techniques. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In medicine stem cell-based treatments are being used in conditions like Parkinson's disease, neural degeneration following brain injury, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. In dentistry, recent exciting discoveries have isolated dental stem cells from the pulp of the deciduous and permanent teeth, from the periodontal ligament, and an associated healthy tooth structure, to cure a number of diseases. The aim of the study was to review the applications of stem cells in various fields of dentistry, with emphasis on its banking, and to understand how dental stem cells can be used for regeneration of oral and non-oral tissues conversely. A Medline search was done including the international literature published between 1989 and 2011. It was restricted to English language articles and published work of past researchers including in vitro and in vivo studies. Google search on dental stem cell banking was also done. Our understanding of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the tissue engineering of systemic, dental, oral, and craniofacial structures has advanced tremendously. Dental professionals have the opportunity to make their patients aware of these new sources of stem cells that can be stored for future use, as new therapies are developed for a range of diseases and injuries. Recent findings and scientific research articles support the use of MSC autologously within teeth and other accessible tissue harvested from oral cavity without immunorejection. A future development of the application of stem cells in interdisciplinary dentistry requires a comprehensive research program.
"In the United States, there is a clinical need for craniofacial bone regeneration, and more than 30,000 surgical procedures are performed each year to repair craniofacial bone defects7. Data also revealed that over 1 million skeletal-related craniofacial procedures were performed in 2002, including 16,338 craniotomies and 32,043 post-traumatic facial reconstructions3. The treatment of craniofacial bone defects remains challenging in terms of providing protection to the brain, preventing infection and maintaining adequate appearance. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an attempt to regain function and aesthetics in the craniofacial region, different biomaterials, including titanium, hydroxyapatite, biodegradable polymers and composites, have been widely used as a result of the loss of craniofacial bone. Although these materials presented favorable success rates, osseointegration and antibacterial properties are often hard to achieve. Although bone-implant interactions are highly dependent on the implant's surface characteristics, infections following traumatic craniofacial injuries are common. As such, poor osseointegration and infections are two of the many causes of implant failure. Further, as increasingly complex dental repairs are attempted, the likelihood of infection in these implants has also been on the rise. For these reasons, the treatment of craniofacial bone defects and dental repairs for long-term success remains a challenge. Various approaches to reduce the rate of infection and improve osseointegration have been investigated. Furthermore, recent and planned tissue engineering developments are aimed at improving the implants' physical and biological properties by improving their surfaces in order to develop craniofacial bone substitutes that will restore, maintain and improve tissue function. In this review, the commonly used biomaterials for craniofacial bone restoration and dental repair, as well as surface modification techniques, antibacterial surfaces and coatings are discussed.
"According to Pittenger, et al. bone marrow-derived MSC are now under consideration for the repair of craniofacial bone and even the replacement or regeneration of oral tissues. Reconstruction of craniofacial and dental defects using MSC avoids many of the limitations of both auto- and allografting techniques. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent exciting discoveries isolated dental stem cells from the pulp of the primary and permanent teeth, from the periodontal ligament, and from associated healthy tissues. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) represent a kind of adult cell colony which has the potent capacity of self-renewing and multilineage differentiation. Stem cell-based tooth engineering is deemed as a promising approach to the making of a biological tooth (bio-tooth) or engineering of functional tooth structures. Dental professionals have the opportunity to make their patients aware of these new sources of stem cells that can be stored for future use as new therapies are developed for a range of diseases and injuries. The aim of this article is to review and understand how dental stem cells are being used for regeneration of oral and conversely nonoral tissues. A brief review on banking is also done for storing of these valuable stem cells for future use.
Indian Journal of Human Genetics 03/2012; 18(3):276-284. DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.107976
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