Craniofacial Bone Tissue Engineering
ABSTRACT Repair and reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton represents a significant biomedical burden, with thousands of procedures per-formed annually secondary to injuries and congenital malformations. Given the multitude of current approaches, the need for more effective strategies to repair these bone deficits is apparent. This article explores two major modalities for craniofacial bone tissue engineering: distraction osteogenesis and cellular based therapies. Current understanding of the guiding principles for each of these modalities is elaborated on along with the knowledge gained from clinical and investigative studies. By laying this foundation, future directions for craniofacial distraction and cell-based bone engineering have emerged with great promise for the advancement of clinical practice.
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ABSTRACT: Maxillofacial and dental defects often have detrimental effects on patient health and appearance. A holistic approach of restoring lost dentition along with bone and soft tissue is now the standard treatment of these defects. Recent improvements in reconstructive techniques, especially osseointegration, microvascular free tissue transfer, and improvements in bone engineering, have yielded excellent functional and aesthetic outcomes. This article reviews the literature on these modern reconstructive and rehabilitation techniques.Journal of the Irish Dental Association 56(1):32-7.
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have become one of the most studied stem cells, especially toward the healing of diseased and damaged tissues and organs. MSCs can be readily isolated from a number of adult tissues by means of minimally invasive approaches. MSCs are capable of self-replication to many passages and, therefore, can potentially be expanded to sufficient numbers for tissue and organ regeneration. MSCs are able to differentiate into multiple cell lineages that resemble osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myoblasts, adipocytes, and fibroblasts and express some of the key markers typical of endothelial cells, neuron-like cells, and cardiomyocytes. MSCs have been used alone for cell delivery or seeded in biomaterial scaffolds toward the healing of tissue and organ defects. After an increasing number of the "proof of concept" studies, the remaining tasks are many, such as to determine MSC interactions with host cells and signaling molecules, to investigate the interplay between MSCs and biological scaffold materials, and to apply MSC-based therapies toward clinically relevant defect models. The ultimate goal of MSC-based therapies has valid biological rationale in that clusters of MSCs differentiate to form virtually all connective tissue during development. MSC-based therapies can only be realized our improved understanding of not only their fundamental properties such as population doubling and differentiation pathways but also translational studies that use MSCs in the de novo formation and/or regeneration of diseased or damaged tissues and organs.Methods in Enzymology 02/2006; 420:339-61. DOI:10.1016/S0076-6879(06)20016-8 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Skeletal deficits represent a substantial biomedical burden on the US healthcare system. Current strategies for reconstructing bony defects are fraught with inadequacies. Cell-based therapies for skeletal regeneration offer a paradigm shift that may provide alternative solutions. Substantial work has identified a host of cellular sources that possess the potential for osteogenic differentiation. Significant efforts have been devoted toward characterizing the role of postnatal cellular sources that are relatively abundant and easily accessible. Among these, the potential of using adipose-derived stromal cells for skeletal regeneration has garnered much interest. Integral to these efforts directed at characterizing cellular sources are studies that seek to understand the factors that initiate and regulate osteogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. Specifically, focus has been directed on elucidating the role of bone morphogenetic protein and fibroblast growth factor signaling in regulating osteogenic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. Concurrent studies in the field of scaffold design have also helped to advance the potential for cell-based therapies.Human Molecular Genetics 04/2008; 17(R1):R93-8. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddn071 · 6.68 Impact Factor