Article

The contribution of executive processes to deceptive responding.

Department of Psychology, Queens College, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367, USA.
Neuropsychologia (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2004; 42(7):878-901. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.12.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We measured behavioral responses (RT) and recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) when participants made truthful and deceptive responses about perceived and remembered stimuli. Participants performed an old/new recognition test under three instructional conditions: Consistent Truthful, Consistent Deceptive and Random Deceptive. Compared to Consistent Truthful responses, Consistent Deceptive responses to both perceived and remembered stimuli produced the same pattern of less accurate, slower and more variable responses and larger medial frontal negativities (MFN). The MFN is thought to reflect activity in anterior cingulate cortex, a brain area involved in monitoring actions and resolving conflicting response tendencies. The Random Deceptive condition required participants to strategically monitor their long-term response patterns to accommodate a deceptive strategy. Even compared to the Consistent Deceptive condition, RTs in the Random Deceptive condition were significantly slower and more variable and MFN activity increased significantly. MFN scalp distribution results revealed the presence of three different patterns of brain activity; one each for truthful responses, deceptive responses and strategic monitoring. Thus, the data indicate that anterior cingulate cortex plays a key role in making deceptive responses.

Full-text

Available from: Ray Johnson, Jun 16, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
84 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lies are intentional distortions of event knowledge. No experimental data are available on manipulating lying processes. To address this issue, we stimulated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Fifteen healthy volunteers were tested before and after tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham). Two types of truthful (truthful selected: TS; truthful unselected: TU) and deceptive (lie selected: LS; lie unselected: LU) responses were evaluated using a computer-controlled task. Reaction times (RTs) and accuracy were collected and used as dependent variables. In the baseline task, the RT was significantly longer for lie responses than for true responses ([mean +/- standard error] 1153.4 +/- 42.0 ms vs. 1039.6 +/- 36.6 ms; F(1,14) = 27.25, P = 0.00013). At baseline, RT for selected pictures was significantly shorter than RT for unselected pictures (1051.26 +/- 39.0 ms vs. 1141.76 +/- 41.1 ms; F(1,14) = 34.85, P = 0.00004). Whereas after cathodal and sham stimulation, lie responses remained unchanged (cathodal 5.26 +/- 2.7%; sham 5.66 +/- 3.6%), after anodal tDCS, RTs significantly increased but did so only for LS responses (16.86 +/- 5.0%; P = 0.002). These findings show that manipulation of brain function with DLPFC tDCS specifically influences experimental deception and that distinctive neural mechanisms underlie different types of lies.
    Cerebral Cortex 03/2008; 18(2):451-5. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhm088 · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Older adults have difficulty when executive control must be brought on line to coordinate ongoing behavior. To assess age-related alterations in executive processing, task-switching performance and event-related potential (ERP) activity were compared in young and older adults on switch, post-switch, pre-switch, and no-switch trials, ordered in demand for executive processes from greatest to least. In stimulus-locked averages for young adults, only switch trials elicited fronto-central P3 components, indicative of task-set attentional reallocation, whereas in older adults, three of the four trial types evinced frontal potentials. In response-locked averages, the amplitude of a medial frontal negativity (MFN), a component reflecting conflict monitoring and detection, increased as a function of executive demands in the ERPs of the young but not those of the older adults. These data suggest altered executive processing in older adults resulting in persistent recruitment of prefrontal processes for conditions that do not require them in the young.
    Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition 02/2008; 15(1):95-128. DOI:10.1080/13825580701533769 · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates age-related performance decreases in the presence of response conflict, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Multiple processes are active, including those that detect and monitor response conflict, which, if necessary, signal the upregulation of cognitive control. To assess which of these executive processes is affected by aging, behavioral and brain responses were measured for compatible and incompatible responses to words ("LEFT"; "RIGHT"). After a correct response, the overall increase in response conflict on incompatible trials engendered similarly decreased accuracy and increased medial frontal negativities (MFN) for both age groups. Age-invariance was also present for momentary increases in response conflict on post-error compatible trials. Hence, the processes for detecting, monitoring and managing response conflict are functionally intact when people age. However, when response conflict was greatest (post-error incompatible), decreased accuracy and increased MFNs were observed only for the elderly. Thus, because the elderly were able to detect and monitor response conflict even at the highest levels, the reason for their performance decrease most likely lies in compromised upregulation of cognitive control.
    Neurobiology of aging 12/2007; 28(11):1769-82. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2006.07.011 · 4.85 Impact Factor