The study objectives were to compare the effects of an etonogestrel-releasing implant (Implanon) and a nonmedicated intrauterine device (IUD) on parameters of lactation in breast-feeding women and on the growth of their breast-fed infants over a 3-year period. Healthy lactating women (28-56 days postpartum) chose either the implant (n=42) or the IUD (n=38). Infant growth during a 3-year follow-up period is reported here. Total duration of breast-feeding coinciding with the mothers' treatment was 421.0 and 423.4 days in the Implanon and IUD groups, respectively. There were no differences between the infant groups in terms of body length, biparietal head circumference and body weight. No abnormalities were reported in psychomotor development or during physical examination. No treatment-related side effects were observed in either group. In conclusion, there were no differences in the growth of breast-fed infants of women treated with Implanon or a nonmedicated IUD. Implanon, therefore, appears to be a safe contraceptive option for breast-feeding women and their infants.
"Importantly, 24-hour milk production and infant growth rates were not different between the two groups. Infants were exposed to the etonogestrel with an initial dose of 19.86 ng/kg/day, equivalent to 1.7% of the maternal dose, during the first month of use, but this dose decreased between months 2 and 4.28 After completion of this trial, researchers followed women and infants over a three-year period to evaluate any differences in long term outcomes.29 Over 80% of subjects in each group completed this follow up. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contraceptive implants provide long-acting, highly effective reversible contraception. The etonogestrel implant (ENG implant) is a single rod implant that offers three years of efficacy. The ENG implant was designed to provide contraceptive efficacy by inhibiting ovulation and Pearl Index scores reported for this method are similar to other long-acting reversible contraception as well as similar to sterilization. The implant has been shown to be safe during breast feeding and may improve symptoms of dysmenorrhea and endometriosis. Irregular bleeding patterns can be expected with the device's use and should be addressed in order to decrease rates of discontinuation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contraceptive implants are safe, highly effective, and long-term methods of contraception that are widely applicable to any reproductive-aged woman. Implants require minimal user compliance and are cost-effective. The new single-rod system simplifies insertion and removal, making implants more accessible for both providers and patients. Specifically, progestin-only implants are safe options for various women including adolescents, postpartum, breast-feeding, those who are medically complicated, or those who have contraindications to or intolerance of estrogen-containing contraceptives.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 04/2007; 34(1):73-90, ix. DOI:10.1016/j.ogc.2007.01.002 · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefits of breastfeeding for both the infant and the mother are undisputed. Longer intervals between births decrease fetal/infant and maternal complications. Lactation is an effective contraceptive for the first 6 months postpartum only if women breastfeed exclusively and at regular intervals, including nighttime. Because a high percentage of women in the United States supplement breastfeeding, it is important for these women to choose a method of contraception to prevent unintended pregnancies. Both the method of contraception and the timing of the initiation of contraceptives are important decisions that a clinician must help the breastfeeding woman make. Ideally, the chosen method of contraception should not interfere with lactation. This article reviews the research on the effect of contraceptives, including hormonal contraceptives, on lactation.
Journal of midwifery & women's health 11/2007; 52(6):614-20. DOI:10.1016/j.jmwh.2007.08.012 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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