The objective of this study was to assess the risk of lung cancer among women who have used oral contraception or hormone replacement therapy (HRT), especially those exposed to both classes of exogenous hormones.
This study is a nested case-control one using prospectively collected data from the Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study (OCS). The 162 case patients were women with a diagnosis of lung cancer recorded on the OCS database by August 2004. Each case patient was matched with 3 control subjects who were free of the disease at the time of the case patient's diagnosis, of similar age and with similar length of follow-up in the OCS.
Compared with never use, current use of oral contraception was associated with a statistically nonsignificant reduced risk of lung cancer, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.47 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.08-2.95 (OR=0.86 and 95% CI=0.50-1.48 for former use; OR=0.84 and 95% CI=0.49-1.43 for ever use). Similar comparisons for HRT were current use (OR=1.21, 95% CI=0.23-6.37), former use (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.23-1.68) and ever use (OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.28-1.78). The OR among women who had used both classes of hormones was 0.53 (95% CI=0.16-1.72), as compared with those who had used neither.
Our results are compatible with findings from other studies that suggest that oral contraceptives may reduce the risk of lung cancer. Evidence for a beneficial effect of HRT is less convincing. Further study is needed to determine how long any benefit lasts and whether it is stronger in women exposed to both classes of exogenous hormones. The small number of events occurring in this very large cohort, however, shows that any public health benefit is likely to be marginal.
"Females in studies of Blackman et al., Kabat et al., Liu et al., Olsson et al. and Smith et al. included young females, who were less than 50 years old , , , , . Estrogen was used alone as HRT in seven studies , , , , , , , estrogen plus progestin were used as HRT in three studies , ,  and estrogen or estrogen plus progestin or the combination of both was used in the left 15 studies. The status of oral contraceptive use in patients was also investigated in nine studies , , , , , –, . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and lung cancer risk in females. Publications were reviewed and obtained through a PubMed, EMBASE database and Cochrane Library literature search up to May, 2012. The detailed numbers of patients in different groups, odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were collected and estimated using a random-effects model. Twenty five studies entered into the meta-analysis. The total number of participates and lung cancer patients was 656,403 and 11,442, respectively. The OR of all 25 studies was 0.91 (95%CI = 0.83 to 0.99) and P value was 0.033. In stratified analyses, the positive association between HRT use and decreased lung cancer risk was also found in the patients with BMI<25 kg/m(2) (OR = 0.65, P = 0.000), and never smokers patients (OR = 0.86, P = 0.042). However, HRT use in patients with artificial menopause could increase the lung cancer risk, OR = 1.51(P = 0.001). The result of Egger's test did not show any evidence of publican bias (P = 0.069). In conclusion, our meta-analysis on HRT and lung cancer risk suggests that HRT use is correlated with decreased lung cancer risk in female, especially in female with BMI<25 kg/m(2) and never smokers.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71236. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071236 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
The incidence of lung cancer is increasing dramatically in women in France. It is now the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the USA and the second in France.
State of the art
Lung cancer occurring in women displays some specific epidemiological, radiological, clinical and pathological characteristics. Moreover, both prognosis and response to treatment appear to be different from men. In line with these findings, lung carcinogenesis is, at least in part, distinct in women and involves different mechanisms and signalling pathways. We emphasize in this review genetic and hormonal specificities based upon epidemiological and biological studies. Moreover, we focus on lung cancer developing during pregnancy by reporting an individual case and discussing the published literature.
Perspectives and conclusions
Recent works suggest that lung cancer in women is a distinct entity with specific carcinogenesis. We propose that a better knowledge of this entity will permit the identification of specific genetic alterations or hormonal profiles that may serve as new therapeutic targets.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.