Predictive Validity of Three ActiGraph Energy Expenditure Equations for Children

University of Wollongong, City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 03/2006; 38(2):380-7. DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000183848.25845.e0
Source: PubMed


This study evaluated the predictive validity of three previously published ActiGraph energy expenditure (EE) prediction equations developed for children and adolescents.
A total of 45 healthy children and adolescents (mean age: 13.7 +/- 2.6 yr) completed four 5-min activity trials (normal walking, brisk walking, easy running, and fast running) in an indoor exercise facility. During each trial, participants wore an ActiGraph accelerometer on the right hip. EE was monitored breath by breath using the Cosmed K4b portable indirect calorimetry system. Differences and associations between measured and predicted EE were assessed using dependent t-tests and Pearson correlations, respectively. Classification accuracy was assessed using percent agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
None of the equations accurately predicted mean energy expenditure during each of the four activity trials. Each equation, however, accurately predicted mean EE in at least one activity trial. The Puyau equation accurately predicted EE during slow walking. The Trost equation accurately predicted EE during slow running. The Freedson equation accurately predicted EE during fast running. None of the three equations accurately predicted EE during brisk walking. The equations exhibited fair to excellent classification accuracy with respect to activity intensity, with the Trost equation exhibiting the highest classification accuracy and the Puyau equation exhibiting the lowest.
These data suggest that the three accelerometer prediction equations do not accurately predict EE on a minute-by-minute basis in children and adolescents during overground walking and running. The equations maybe useful, however, for estimating participation in moderate and vigorous activity.

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    • "Research on determinants of physical activity requires reliable, valid measures. While objective methods, such as use of accelerometry, have been validated extensively [7-9] these measures also have limitations [10,11]. Further, some research methodologies, such as the use of large surveys, require self-reported measures of physical activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Valid measures of physical activity are critical research tools. The objective of this study was to develop a Spanish translation of the Yale Physical Activity Survey, and to provide preliminary evidence of its validity in a population of Dominican patients with lower extremity arthritis. A Dominican bilingual health care professional translated the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) from English to Spanish. Several Dominican adults reviewed the translation to ensure it was linguistically and culturally appropriate. The questionnaire was back-translated to English by a North American researcher who is fluent in Spanish. Discrepancies between the original and back-translated versions were resolved by the translator and back-translator. The Spanish translation was administered to 108 Dominican subjects with advanced hip or knee arthritis prior to (N = 44) or one to four years following (N = 64) total joint replacement. We assessed construct validity by examining the association of YPAS scores and measures of functional status and pain (WOMAC), quality of life (EQ-5D) and the number of painful lower extremity joints. A higher YPAS Part II Activity Dimensions Summary Index score had weak to modest correlations with worse function and quality of life as measured with the WOMAC function scale (r = 0.21, p = 0.03), SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.29, p = 0.004) and EQ-5D (r = 0.34, p = 0.0007). Total minutes of vigorous activity and walking had weak to modest correlation with these measures (WOMAC Function Scale (r = 0.15, p = 0.15), SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.21, p = 0.04) and EQ-5D utility (r = 0.24, p = 0.02). Correlations between the YPAS Part I energy expenditure score and these measures were lower (WOMAC Function Scale (r = 0.07, p = 0.49, SF-36 Physical Activity Scale (r = 0.03, p = 0.74) and EQ-5D utility (r = 0.18, p = 0.07). We have developed a new Spanish translation of the Yale Physical Activity Survey and provided evidence of convergent validity in a sample of Dominican patients prior to or 1-4 years following total joint replacement.
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 04/2014; 15(1):120. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-15-120 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, the Schofield equation [15] was used as a proxy measure of predicted basal metabolic rate which might have influenced the results. However, the Schofield equation [15] has been shown to be valid for estimating basal metabolic rate in preschoolers [31] and has been used for the same purpose in activity monitor validation studies in older children [22], [24], [32]. The proportion of data classified as valid when using EE combined with direct observation as criterion measure was low, especially for MVPA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluate the predictive validity of ActiGraph energy expenditure equations and the classification accuracy of physical activity intensity cut-points in preschoolers. Forty children aged 4-6 years (5.3±1.0 years) completed a ∼150-min room calorimeter protocol involving age-appropriate sedentary, light and moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activities. Children wore an ActiGraph GT3X on the right mid-axillary line of the hip. Energy expenditure measured by room calorimetry and physical activity intensity classified using direct observation were the criterion methods. Energy expenditure was predicted using Pate and Puyau equations. Physical activity intensity was classified using Evenson, Sirard, Van Cauwenberghe, Pate, Puyau, and Reilly, ActiGraph cut-points. The Pate equation significantly overestimated VO2 during sedentary behaviors, light physical activities and total VO2 (P<0.001). No difference was found between measured and predicted VO2 during moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activities (P = 0.072). The Puyau equation significantly underestimated activity energy expenditure during moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activities, light-intensity physical activities and total activity energy expenditure (P<0.0125). However, no overestimation of activity energy expenditure during sedentary behavior was found. The Evenson cut-point demonstrated significantly higher accuracy for classifying sedentary behaviors and light-intensity physical activities than others. Classification accuracy for moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activities was significantly higher for Pate than others. Available ActiGraph equations do not provide accurate estimates of energy expenditure across physical activity intensities in preschoolers. Cut-points of ≤25counts⋅15 s(-1) and ≥420 counts⋅15 s(-1) for classifying sedentary behaviors and moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activities, respectively, are recommended.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79124. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079124 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Activity was measured using the ActiGraph GT1M (ActiGraph, Florida, USA), a small (3.8×3.7×1.8 cm), lightweight (27 g) uni-axial accelerometer that measures volumes and patterns of activity. The ActiGraph has been extensively validated in children [26], [27], [28], and is robust when used in large-scale studies in children [3], [4], [5], [8]. A 15-second sampling epoch was selected in order to optimize the ability to capture the sporadic nature of children’s activity [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: When using accelerometers to measure physical activity, researchers need to determine whether subjects have worn their device for a sufficient period to be included in analyses. We propose a minimum wear criterion using population-based accelerometer data, and explore the influence of gender and the purposeful inclusion of children with weekend data on reliability. Accelerometer data obtained during the age seven sweep of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were analysed. Children were asked to wear an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven days. Reliability coefficients(r) of mean daily counts/minute were calculated using the Spearman-Brown formula based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. An r of 1.0 indicates that all the variation is between- rather than within-children and that measurement is 100% reliable. An r of 0.8 is often regarded as acceptable reliability. Analyses were repeated on data from children who met different minimum daily wear times (one to 10 hours) and wear days (one to seven days). Analyses were conducted for all children, separately for boys and girls, and separately for children with and without weekend data. At least one hour of wear time data was obtained from 7,704 singletons. Reliability increased as the minimum number of days and the daily wear time increased. A high reliability (r = 0.86) and sample size (n = 6,528) was achieved when children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day were included in analyses. Reliability coefficients were similar for both genders. Purposeful sampling of children with weekend data resulted in comparable reliabilities to those calculated independent of weekend wear. Quality control procedures should be undertaken before analysing accelerometer data in large-scale studies. Using data from children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day should provide reliable estimates of physical activity. It's unnecessary to include only children with accelerometer data collected during weekends in analyses.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e67206. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067206 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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