The effects of leukodepletion on the generation and removal of microvesicles and prion protein in blood components.
ABSTRACT Universal leukodepletion (LD) has been implemented in the United Kingdom to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. If LD causes microvesiculation of blood cells, however, potentially infectious membrane-associated prion could reach the final products.
We have measured microvesicles (MV) derived from red cells (RBC-MV), platelets (PLT-MV), and white blood cells (WBC-MV) and cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) in blood components produced by four whole-blood, five RBC, three PLT, and two plasma LD filters and three plateletpheresis techniques.
RBC-MV and PLT-MV were either unaltered or reduced by all processes, with PLT-MV reduced 10-fold by RBC LD and greater than 300-fold by plasma LD. WBC-MV were reduced or unchanged by RBC and PLT LD and reduced by plasma LD. Whole-blood filtration appeared to increase MVs derived from granulocytes, but the load in the final components was comparable to that in processed RBCs in additive solution. PrP(c) was reduced by whole-blood, RBC, and plasma LD and unchanged by PLT techniques. There were differences between various filters and techniques, which were generally minor compared to the overall effects.
These findings suggest no detrimental effects of LD processes in terms of generation of MVs or PrP(c) release.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological surveillance of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) was reinstituted in the UK in 1990 to identify any changes in the occurrence of this disease after the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Case ascertainment of CJD was mostly by direct referral from neurologists and neuropathologists. Death certificates on which CJD was mentioned were also obtained. Clinical details were obtained for all referred cases, and information on potential risk factors for CJD was obtained by a standard questionnaire administered to patients' relatives. Neuropathological examination was carried out on approximately 70% of suspect cases. Epidemiological studies of CJD using similar methodology to the UK study have been carried out in France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands between 1993 and 1995. Ten cases of CJD have been identified in the UK in recent months with a new neuropathological profile. Other consistent features that are unusual include the young age of the cases, clinical findings, and the absence of the electroencephalogram features typical for CJD. Similar cases have not been identified in other countries in the European surveillance system. These cases appear to represent a new variant of CJD, which may be unique to the UK. This raises the possibility that they are causally linked to BSE. Although this may be the most plausible explanation for this cluster of cases, a link with BSE cannot be confirmed on the basis of this evidence alone. It is essential to obtain further information on the current and past clinical and neuropathological profiles of CJD in the UK and elsewhere.The Lancet 05/1996; 347(9006):921-5. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion using sheep experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or natural scrapie as donors and susceptible scrapie-free sheep as recipients. Donors and recipients of the same species greatly increase the sensitivity of the bioassay and in sheep large volumes of blood can be injected by the intravenous (i.v.) route. Transmission of BSE to a single animal using this approach was reported recently. This study confirms this result with a second transmission of BSE and four new cases of transmission of natural scrapie. Positive transmissions occurred with blood taken at pre-clinical and clinical stages of infection. Initial studies indicate that following such infection by the i.v. route, deposition of the abnormal prion protein isoform, PrP(Sc), in peripheral tissues may be much more limited than is seen following oral infection. These results confirm the risks of TSE infection via blood products and suggest that the measures taken to restrict the use of blood in the UK have been fully justified.Journal of General Virology 12/2002; 83(Pt 11):2897-905. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To quantify the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrP(c)) in human blood using a new time-resolved dissociation-enhanced fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA). The DELFIA was optimised for human blood samples and applied to isolated cell and plasma fractions from blood donations. The physicochemical properties of PrP(c) were analysed. 26. 5% of blood PrP(c) was associated with the platelet fraction, 0.8% with polymorphonuclear leucocytes, 2.4% with mononuclear leucocytes, 1.8% with red cells and 68.5% with plasma (mean values from 4 processed donations). The majority of blood PrP(c) is found in the platelet and plasma compartments.Vox Sanguinis 02/1999; 77(2):88-96. · 2.85 Impact Factor