Differential hepatic gene expression in a polygenic mouse model with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia: evidence for a combined transcriptional dysregulation of gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis.
ABSTRACT New Zealand obese (NZO) mice exhibit severe insulin resistance of hepatic glucose metabolism. In order to define its biochemical basis, we studied the differential expression of genes involved in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by microarray analysis. NZOxF1 (SJLxNZO) backcross mice were generated in order to obtain populations with heterogeneous metabolism but comparable genetic background. In these backcross mice, groups of controls (normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic), insulin-resistant (normoglycemic/hyperinsulinemic) and diabetic (hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic) mice were identified. At 22 weeks, mRNA was isolated from liver, converted to cDNA, and used for screening of two types of cDNA arrays (high-density filter arrays and Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays). Differential gene expression was ascertained and assessed by Northern blotting. The data indicate that hyperinsulinemia in the NZO mouse is associated with: (i) increased mRNA levels of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, stearoyl-CoA desaturase) or fatty acid oxidation (cytochrome P450 4A14, ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acyl-CoA oxidase), (ii) induction of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase, and (iii) increased mRNA levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These effects were enhanced by a high-fat diet. In conclusion, the pattern of gene expression in insulin-resistant NZO mice appears to reflect a dissociation of the effects of insulin on genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The data are consistent with a hypothetical scenario in which an insulin-resistant hepatic glucose production produces hyperinsulinemia, and an enhanced insulin- and substrate-driven lipogenesis further aggravates the deleterious insulin resistance of glucose metabolism.
SourceAvailable from: Jane Kenney-Hunt[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent form of human hepatic disease and feeding mice a High-Fat, High-Caloric (HFHC) diet is a standard model of NAFLD. To better understand the genetic basis of NAFLD, we conducted an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of mice fed a HFHC diet. 265 (A/J × C57BL/6J) F2 male mice were fed a HFHC diet for 8 weeks. eQTL analysis was utilized to identify genomic regions that regulate hepatic gene expression of Xbp1s and Socs3. We identified two overlapping loci for Xbp1s and Socs3 on Chr 1 (164.0-185.4 Mb and 174.4-190.5 Mb, respectively) and Chr 11 (41.1-73.1 Mb and 44.0-68.6 Mb, respectively), and an additional locus for Socs3 on Chr 12 (109.9-117.4 Mb). C57BL/6J-Chr 11(A/J)/ NaJ mice fed a HFHC diet manifested the A/J phenotype of increased Xbp1s and Socs3 gene expression (P < 0.05), while C57BL/6J-Chr 1(A/J)/ NaJ mice retained the C57BL/6J phenotype. In addition, we replicated the eQTLs on Chr 1 and 12 (LOD scores ≥ 3.5) using mice from the BXD murine reference panel challenged with CCl4 to induce chronic liver injury and fibrosis. We have identified overlapping eQTLs for Xbp1 and Socs3 on Chr 1 and 11, and consomic mice confirmed that replacing the C57BL/6J Chr 11 with the A/J Chr 11 resulted in an A/J phenotype for Xbp1 and Socs3 gene expression. Identification of the genes for these eQTLs will lead to a better understanding of the genetic factors responsible for NAFLD and potentially other hepatic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Author et al.G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 01/2015; 5(4). DOI:10.1534/g3.115.016626 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adipocytes release immune mediators that contribute to diabetes-associated inflammatory processes. As the stress protein heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) induces proinflammatory adipocyte activities, we hypothesized that adipocytes of diabetes-predisposed mice exhibit an increased proinflammatory reactivity to Hsp60. Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes from nonobese diabetic (NOD), New Zealand obese (NZO), and C57BL/6J mice were analyzed for Hsp60 binding, Hsp60-activated signaling pathways, and Hsp60-induced release of the chemokine CXCL-1 (KC), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Hsp60 showed specific binding to (pre-)adipocytes of NOD, NZO, and C57BL/6J mice. Hsp60 binding involved conserved binding structure(s) and Hsp60 epitopes and was strongest to NZO mouse-derived mature adipocytes. Hsp60 exposure induced KC, IL-6, and MCP-1 release from (pre-)adipocytes of all mouse strains with a pronounced increase of IL-6 release from NZO mouse-derived adipocytes. Compared to NOD and C57BL/6J mouse derived cells, Hsp60-induced formation of IL-6, KC, and MCP-1 from NZO mouse-derived (pre-)adipocytes strongly depended on NF κ B-activation. Increased Hsp60 binding and Hsp60-induced IL-6 release by mature adipocytes of NZO mice suggest that enhanced adipocyte reactivity to the stress signal Hsp60 contributes to inflammatory processes underlying diabetes associated with obesity and insulin resistance.Journal of Diabetes Research 02/2014; 2014:187153. DOI:10.1155/2014/187153 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-related metabolic abnormalities are not well established. We performed mitochondrial quantitative proteomic and whole transcriptome analysis followed by functional annotations within liver and skeletal muscles, using fasted and non-fasted 16- and 48-week-old high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and normal diet-fed (control group) wild-type C56BL/6J mice, and hyperphagic ob/ob and db/db obese mice. Our study identified 1,675 and 704 mitochondria-associated proteins with at least two peptides in liver and muscle, respectively. Of these, 221 liver and 44 muscle proteins were differentially expressed (adjusted p values ≤ 0.05) between control and all obese mice, while overnight fasting altered expression of 107 liver and 35 muscle proteins. In the liver, we distinguished a network of 27 proteins exhibiting opposite direction of expression changes in HFD-fed and hyperphagic mice when compared to control. The network centered on cytochromes P450 3a11 (Cyp3a11) and 4a14 (Cyp4a14), and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (Aldob) proteins which bridged proteins cluster involved in Metabolism of xenobiotics with proteins engaged in Fatty acid metabolism and PPAR signaling pathways. Functional annotations revealed that most of the hepatic molecular alterations, which characterized both obesity and fasting, related to different aspects of energy metabolism (such as Fatty acid metabolism, Peroxisome, and PPAR signaling); however, only a limited number of functional annotations could be selected from skeletal muscle data sets. Thus, our comprehensive molecular overview revealed that both obesity and fasting states induce more pronounced mitochondrial proteome changes in the liver than in the muscles.Functional & Integrative Genomics 11/2013; 14(1). DOI:10.1007/s10142-013-0342-3 · 2.69 Impact Factor