Article

Differential hepatic gene expression in a polygenic mouse model with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia: evidence for a combined transcriptional dysregulation of gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty of Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.62). 03/2004; 32(1):195-208.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT New Zealand obese (NZO) mice exhibit severe insulin resistance of hepatic glucose metabolism. In order to define its biochemical basis, we studied the differential expression of genes involved in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by microarray analysis. NZOxF1 (SJLxNZO) backcross mice were generated in order to obtain populations with heterogeneous metabolism but comparable genetic background. In these backcross mice, groups of controls (normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic), insulin-resistant (normoglycemic/hyperinsulinemic) and diabetic (hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic) mice were identified. At 22 weeks, mRNA was isolated from liver, converted to cDNA, and used for screening of two types of cDNA arrays (high-density filter arrays and Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays). Differential gene expression was ascertained and assessed by Northern blotting. The data indicate that hyperinsulinemia in the NZO mouse is associated with: (i) increased mRNA levels of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, stearoyl-CoA desaturase) or fatty acid oxidation (cytochrome P450 4A14, ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acyl-CoA oxidase), (ii) induction of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase, and (iii) increased mRNA levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These effects were enhanced by a high-fat diet. In conclusion, the pattern of gene expression in insulin-resistant NZO mice appears to reflect a dissociation of the effects of insulin on genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The data are consistent with a hypothetical scenario in which an insulin-resistant hepatic glucose production produces hyperinsulinemia, and an enhanced insulin- and substrate-driven lipogenesis further aggravates the deleterious insulin resistance of glucose metabolism.

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